How to format your references using the International Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fray D. Metallurgy: iron production electrified. Nature. 2013 May 16;497(7449):324–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor R, Forge A. Developmental biology. Life after deaf for hair cells? Science. 2005 Feb 18;307(5712):1056–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yi C, Wei S, Hendrey G. Warming climate extends dryness-controlled areas of terrestrial carbon sequestration. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 1;4:5472.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ikegaya Y, Aaron G, Cossart R, Aronov D, Lampl I, Ferster D, et al. Synfire chains and cortical songs: temporal modules of cortical activity. Science. 2004 Apr 23;304(5670):559–64.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cerroni L, Gatter K, Kerl H. Skin Lymphoma: The Illustrated Guide. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
Hankin C, Siveroni I, editors. Static Analysis: 12th International Symposium, SAS 2005, London, UK, September 7-9, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. X, 374 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 3672).
A chapter in an edited book
Freitas AA. A Review of evolutionary Algorithms for Data Mining. In: Maimon O, Rokach L, editors. Soft Computing for Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. p. 79–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Surgery.

Blog post
Taub B. Humpback Whales Protect Other Animals From Killer Whales, But No One Knows Why [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Science Foundation’s Actions on Recommendations of GAO Report “Opportunities for Improved Management of the Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) Program.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Mar. Report No.: HRD-77-54.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baker BR. Schizophrenia-spectrum behavior and peer responses to individuals with social anhedonia [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Mexico Official Resigns. New York Times. 2012 Mar 17;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Surgery
AbbreviationInt. Surg.
ISSN (print)0020-8868

Other styles