How to format your references using the International Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schloss PD. Microbiology: An integrated view of the skin microbiome. Nature. 2014 Oct 2;514(7520):44–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Neill BC, Oppenheimer M. Climate change. Dangerous climate impacts and the Kyoto Protocol. Science. 2002 Jun 14;296(5575):1971–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gregg MC, Sanford TB, Winkel DP. Reduced mixing from the breaking of internal waves in equatorial waters. Nature. 2003 Apr 3;422(6931):513–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Demers LM, Ginger DS, Park S-J, Li Z, Chung S-W, Mirkin CA. Direct patterning of modified oligonucleotides on metals and insulators by dip-pen nanolithography. Science. 2002 Jun 7;296(5574):1836–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ash MK. The Mary Kay Way. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Liamputtong P, editor. Stigma, Discrimination and Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. XXIV, 415 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Rigo E. Citizens and Foreigners in the Enlarged Europe. In: Sadurski W, Czarnota A, Krygier M, editors. Spreading Democracy and the Rule of Law?: The Impact of EU Enlargement on the Rule of Law, Democracy and Constitutionalism in Post-Communist Legal Orders. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 97–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. An Animal That Could Rewrite The Family Tree: One Of The Top New Species Of 2015. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Internet: Federal Web-based Complaint Handling. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Jul. Report No.: AIMD-00-238R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bustos I. Backpacking Through My Suburban Barrio: Eco-Latina Diaries [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kleiman K. What to Do With an Empty Storefront? A Makeshift Art Gallery. New York Times. 2010 Mar 12;A21B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Surgery
AbbreviationInt. Surg.
ISSN (print)0020-8868

Other styles