How to format your references using the International Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Junge C. Morbidity: A personal response. Nature. 2011 Dec 7;480(7376):S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Li X, Yang Y. A novel perspective on seed yield of broad bean (Vicia faba L.): differences resulting from pod characteristics. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 31;4:6859.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Babu MM, Kriwacki RW, Pappu RV. Structural biology. Versatility from protein disorder. Science. 2012 Sep 21;337(6101):1460–1.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Lei M, Wang J, Li JR, Wang YG, Tang HL, Wang WJ. Emerging methanol-tolerant AlN nanowire oxygen reduction electrocatalyst for alkaline direct methanol fuel cell. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 11;4:6013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
May V, Kühn O. Charge and Energy Transfer Dynamics in Molecular Systems. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2007.
An edited book
1.
Dong S, Kassam K-AS, Tourrand JF, Boone RB, editors. Building Resilience of Human-Natural Systems of Pastoralism in the Developing World: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XII, 298 p. 111 illus., 91 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Ignatova T, Bruder I. Utilizing a Multimedia UML Framework for an Image Database Application. In: Akoka J, Liddle SW, Song I-Y, Bertolotto M, Comyn-Wattiau I, Heuvel W-J van D, et al., editors. Perspectives in Conceptual Modeling: ER 2005 Workshops AOIS, BP-UML, CoMoGIS, eCOMO, and QoIS, Klagenfurt, Austria, October 24-28, 2005 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 23–32. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Biotech Firm 3D Prints Fake Rhino Horn That’s Genetically Identical To The Real Thing [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/fake-rhino-horn-fight-poaching/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: SEMATECH’s Efforts to Strengthen the U.S. Semiconductor Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Sep. Report No.: RCED-90-236.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Otarola AC. The effects of turbulence in an absorbing atmosphere on the propagation of microwave signals used in an active sounding system [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. Arts, Briefly; Russian Officials Say Looted War Art Can Stay. New York Times. 2005 Mar 7;E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Surgery
AbbreviationInt. Surg.
ISSN (print)0020-8868
ScopeSurgery

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