How to format your references using the International Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gough D. Astronomy. How oblate is the Sun? Science. 2012 Sep 28;337(6102):1611–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roach M, Sauermann H. ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Founders and joiners. Science. 2015 Jun 12;348(6240):1200–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ben-Shem A, Frolow F, Nelson N. Crystal structure of plant photosystem I. Nature. 2003 Dec 11;426(6967):630–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kurpiers P, Magnard P, Walter T, Royer B, Pechal M, Heinsoo J, et al. Deterministic quantum state transfer and remote entanglement using microwave photons. Nature. 2018 Jun;558(7709):264–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abdullaeva Z. Nano- and Biomaterials. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2017.
An edited book
Rodríguez-Merchán EC, Rubio-Suárez JC, editors. Complex Fractures of the Limbs: Diagnosis and Management. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. VIII, 171 p. 74 illus., 29 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Santodonato LJ, Liaw PK. Advanced Characterization Techniques. In: Gao MC, Yeh JW, Liaw PK, Zhang Y, editors. High-Entropy Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 115–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Surgery.

Blog post
Andrews R. Male Contraceptive Jab Shown To Be 96 Percent Effective [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Study of United States Government Wind Tunnels. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1954 Apr. Report No.: B-114825.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Strong M. Investigation and Characterization of Features on a Cretaceous-Paleogene Seismic Horizon in Northern Louisiana [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Concert Venues Split From Bowery Presents. New York Times. 2017 Aug 2;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Surgery
AbbreviationInt. Surg.
ISSN (print)0020-8868

Other styles