How to format your references using the Biopolymers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biopolymers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kurita, N. Science 2012, 336, 1242–1243.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shirey, S. B.; Richardson, S. H. Science 2011, 333, 434–436.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gambardella, A.; Prezioso, M.; Cavallini, M. Sci Rep 2014, 4, 4196.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Raizen, D. M.; Zimmerman, J. E.; Maycock, M. H.; Ta, U. D.; You, Y.-J.; Sundaram, M. V.; Pack, A. I. Nature 2008, 451, 569–572.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hanby, M. No God, No Science?; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, 2013.
An edited book
Methodological Challenges When Exploring Digital Learning Spaces in Education; New Research – New Voices; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Domżał, J.; Wójcik, R.; Jajszczyk, A. Traffic Management and Traffic Engineering for the Future Internet: First Euro-NF Workshop, FITraMEn 2008, Porto, Portugal, December 11-12, Revised Selected Papers; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biopolymers.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Plants release chemical weapons and deploy insect armies in their defence (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: NASA Should Better Inform Researchers about How to Appeal Dissemination Decisions; GAO-10-200; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeClerk, C. C. The relationship between retail store manager leadership styles and employee generational cohort, performance, and satisfaction. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robinson, L. New York Times. November 23, 2008, p WK9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBiopolymers
ISSN (print)0006-3525
ISSN (online)1097-0282
Organic Chemistry
General Medicine

Other styles