How to format your references using the Biopolymers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biopolymers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang, J. Science 2015, 350, 519.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kalinin, S. V.; Spaldin, N. A. Science 2013, 341, 858–859.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gillespie, A. R.; Montgomery, D. R.; Mushkin, A. Nature 2005, 438, E9-10; discussion E10.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pellegrini, L.; Yu, D. S.; Lo, T.; Anand, S.; Lee, M.; Blundell, T. L.; Venkitaraman, A. R. Nature 2002, 420, 287–293.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shreves, R.; Dunwoodie, B. Drupal® 7 Bible; Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2011.
An edited book
Virtuous or Villainess? The Image of the Royal Mother from the Early Medieval to the Early Modern Era; Queenship and Power; Palgrave Macmillan US: New York, NY, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Gelmetti, C. Storia della Dermatologia e della Venereologia in Italia; Springer: Milano, 2015; pp 103–141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biopolymers.

Blog post
Andrew, D. A Brief History Of Everything, With Neil deGrasse Tyson (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Further Steps Needed to Strengthen the Security of Commercial Airport Perimeters and Access Controls; GAO-04-728; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Long, J. J. Comparison of health-promoting lifestyles in adult patients with and without primary care provider continuity. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Risen, J.; Fink, S. New York Times. February 8, 2017, p A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBiopolymers
ISSN (print)0006-3525
ISSN (online)1097-0282
Organic Chemistry
General Medicine

Other styles