How to format your references using the International Soil and Water Conservation Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Soil and Water Conservation Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Umstadter, D. (2000). Laser light splits atom. Nature, 404(6775), 239.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dragoi, G., & Tonegawa, S. (2011). Preplay of future place cell sequences by hippocampal cellular assemblies. Nature, 469(7330), 397–401.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shema, R., Sacktor, T. C., & Dudai, Y. (2007). Rapid erasure of long-term memory associations in the cortex by an inhibitor of PKM zeta. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5840), 951–953.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hepting, M., Chaix, L., Huang, E. W., Fumagalli, R., Peng, Y. Y., Moritz, B., Kummer, K., Brookes, N. B., Lee, W. C., Hashimoto, M., Sarkar, T., He, J.-F., Rotundu, C. R., Lee, Y. S., Greene, R. L., Braicovich, L., Ghiringhelli, G., Shen, Z. X., Devereaux, T. P., & Lee, W. S. (2018). Three-dimensional collective charge excitations in electron-doped copper oxide superconductors. Nature, 563(7731), 374–378.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gunn, D. M. (2016). Judges. Blackwell Publishing.
An edited book
Yoshida, H., Sakas, G., & Linguraru, M. G. (Eds.). (2012). Abdominal Imaging. Computational and Clinical Applications: Third International Workshop, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2011, Toronto, ON, Canada, September 18, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 7029). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Niemczyk, S. P. (2016). Nonsurgical Retreatment Utilizing Cone Beam Computed Tomography. In M. Fayad & B. R. Johnson (Eds.), 3D Imaging in Endodontics: A New Era in Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 75–112). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Soil and Water Conservation Research.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, August 18). Egyptian Mummy Of Member Of The Wealthy Elite Discovered In A Tomb Near River Nile. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Need for NASA To Provide Congress More Complete Cost Information on Its Projects (PSAD-81-7). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hambarsoomian, H. (2017). Classification of Placental Chorionic Surface Vasculature Network Features Using Machine Learning Techniques [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2015, October 17). Puerto Rico Governor’s Fiscal Oversight Plan Raises Doubts. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Umstadter, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Dragoi & Tonegawa, 2011; Umstadter, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dragoi & Tonegawa, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Shema et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hepting et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Soil and Water Conservation Research
AbbreviationInt. Soil Water Conserv. Res.
ISSN (print)2095-6339

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