How to format your references using the Chemical Biology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Biology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Aguzzi. Cell biology. Prion toxicity: all sail and no anchor. Science 2005, 308 (5727), 1420–1421.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Kai, A. Spradling. Differentiating germ cells can revert into functional stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster ovaries. Nature 2004, 428 (6982), 564–569.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Schmauss, Z. Lee-McDermott, L.R. Medina. Trans-generational effects of early life stress: the role of maternal behavior. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4873.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
L. Liu, S. Liu, X. Chen, et al. Switching molecular orientation of individual fullerene at room temperature. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3062.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E.G. Yukihara, S.W.S. McKeever. Optically Stimulated Luminescence; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011.
An edited book
A. DeMaris. Converting Data into Evidence: A Statistics Primer for the Medical Practitioner; Selman, S. H., Ed.; Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
S.C. Stubberud, A.M. Teranishi. Estimation for Target Tracking Using a Control Theoretic Approach – Part I. In Advances in Systems Science: Proceedings of the International Conference on Systems Science 2013 (ICSS 2013); Swiątek, J., Grzech, A., Swiątek, P., Tomczak, J. M., Eds.; Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014; pp 35–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Biology Letters.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan. Private Company Wants To Use The ISS To Build A Commercial Space Station (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reports Issued in August 1987; 134039; U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.O. Racho. Attributes of Asian American senior leaders who have retained their cultural identity and been successful in American corporations. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
N. George. Still Too Good, Too Bad or Invisible. New York Times. February 17, 2013, p AR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Biology Letters
ISSN (print)2347-9825

Other styles