How to format your references using the Chemical Biology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Biology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.D. Long. GEOPHYSICS. How mountains get made. Science 2015, 349 (6249), 687–688.
A journal article with 2 authors
V. Capraro, A. Marcelletti. Do good actions inspire good actions in others? Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7470.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Medzhitov, D.S. Schneider, M.P. Soares. Disease tolerance as a defense strategy. Science 2012, 335 (6071), 936–941.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
D. Tilman, P.B. Reich, J. Knops, et al. Diversity and productivity in a long-term grassland experiment. Science 2001, 294 (5543), 843–845.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O. Bouchet. Wireless Optical Communications; John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
Transport and Fate of Chemicals in the Environment: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology; Gulliver, J. S., Ed.; Springer, New York, NY, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Siskin, J. Golzarian. Visceral and Abdominal Solid Organ Trauma. In Vascular Embolotherapy: A Comprehensive Approach Volume 2 Oncology, Trauma, Gene Therapy, Vascular Malformations, and Neck; Golzarian, J., Sun, S., Sharafuddin, M. J., Eds.; Medical Radiology; Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; pp 43–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Biology Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew. What Happens When A Can of Coke Is Dropped Into Liquid Nitrogen? (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Trade Adjustment Assistance: Labor Awarded Community College Grants in Accordance with Requirements, but Needs to Improve Its Process; GAO-12-954; U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.D. McClurg. A phenomenological study of Baby Boomer retirement— Expectations, results, and implications. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Gorman. Analyzing Ah-Choos: All Dogs in Favor Of the Motion, Sneeze. New York Times. September 6, 2017, p D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Biology Letters
ISSN (print)2347-9825

Other styles