How to format your references using the International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seeberger, P.H.: Exploring life’s sweet spot. Nature. 437, 1239 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Bendor, D., Wang, X.: The neuronal representation of pitch in primate auditory cortex. Nature. 436, 1161–1165 (2005)
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, S., Ting, C.-T., Wu, C.-I.: The normal function of a speciation gene, Odysseus, and its hybrid sterility effect. Science. 305, 81–83 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhu, M., Zhao, W., Jia, L., Lu, J., Qiao, T., Qu, Q.: The oldest articulated osteichthyan reveals mosaic gnathostome characters. Nature. 458, 469–474 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chernick, M.R.: The Essentials of Biostatistics for Physicians, Nurses, and Clinicians. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011)
An edited book
Kalet, A., Chou, C.L. eds: Remediation in Medical Education: A Mid-Course Correction. Springer, New York, NY (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Tóth, Z., Kovács, L.: Pattern Distillation in Grammar Induction Methods. In: Bognár, G. and Tóth, T. (eds.) Applied Information Science, Engineering and Technology: Selected Topics from the Field of Production Information Engineering and IT for Manufacturing: Theory and Practice. pp. 47–62. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Fire Rainbows And How They Form,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: [Response to Request for Comments on Federal Contribution to Corporation for Public Broadcasting]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1986)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chamberlain, A.D.: Policy and Behavior: Essays in Applied Microeconomics, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J.R.: From 1687, Early Sounds in All Their Vibrancy, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer
AbbreviationInt. J. Softw. Tools Technol. Transf.
ISSN (print)1433-2779
ISSN (online)1433-2787
ScopeInformation Systems

Other styles