How to format your references using the International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scanlon, J.D.: Skull of the large non-macrostomatan snake Yurlunggur from the Australian Oligo-Miocene. Nature. 439, 839–842 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Makino, S., Suzuki, M.: Bacterial genomic reorganization upon DNA replication. Science. 292, 803 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Wardle, D.A., Nilsson, M.-C., Zackrisson, O.: Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus. Science. 320, 629 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kurz, W.A., Dymond, C.C., Stinson, G., Rampley, G.J., Neilson, E.T., Carroll, A.L., Ebata, T., Safranyik, L.: Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change. Nature. 452, 987–990 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Gyurky, S.M.: The Cognitive Dynamics of Computer Science. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2006)
An edited book
Munoz, R., Morell, V., Cruz, E., Vetterly, C. eds: Critical Care of Children with Heart Disease: Basic Medical and Surgical Concepts. Springer, London (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Ahlswede, R.: Founding Cryptography on Oblivious Transfer. In: Ahlswede, A., Althöfer, I., Deppe, C., and Tamm, U. (eds.) Hiding Data - Selected Topics: Rudolf Ahlswede’s Lectures on Information Theory 3. pp. 337–344. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Embryonic Stem Cells Show Promise As MS Treatment In Mice,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Desegregation Activities: Administration of Education Grant Funds at the Cleveland School District. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1989)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez, R.M.: Experimental Evaluation of Cooling Effectiveness and Water Conservation in a Poultry House Using Flow Blurring Atomizers, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B.: One of Us, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer
AbbreviationInt. J. Softw. Tools Technol. Transf.
ISSN (print)1433-2779
ISSN (online)1433-2787
ScopeInformation Systems

Other styles