How to format your references using the The Canadian Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Canadian Veterinary Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Glaeser E. Cities, productivity, and quality of life. Science. 2011 Jul 29;333(6042):592–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sarewitz D, Nelson R. Three rules for technological fixes. Nature. 2008 Dec 18;456(7224):871–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lyon BE, Chaine AS, Winkler DW. Ecology. A matter of timing. Science. 2008 Aug 22;321(5892):1051–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dikin DA, Stankovich S, Zimney EJ, Piner RD, Dommett GHB, Evmenenko G, et al. Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper. Nature. 2007 Jul 26;448(7152):457–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rassool GH. Addiction for Nurses. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Max MD. Economic Geology of Natural Gas Hydrate. Johnson AH, Dillon WP, editors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. XXI, 343 p. (Coastal Systems and Continental Margins; vol. 9).
A chapter in an edited book
Kaneko M, Izumi H, Kitahara K, Abe T, Fukazawa K, Sekiguchi M, et al. A Simple Method of the ${\rm\kern-.15em T\kern-.1667em\lower.7ex\hbox{E}\kern-.125emX}$ Surface Drawing Suitable for Teaching Materials with the Aid of CAS. In: Bubak M, Albada GD van, Dongarra J, Sloot PMA, editors. Computational Science – ICCS 2008: 8th International Conference, Kraków, Poland, June 23-25, 2008, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 35–45. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Canadian Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Why Sex Gets Better In Older Age. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Savings Available to Government on Certain IBM Automatic Data Processing Equipment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971 Mar. Report No.: 093029.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eslava Rios J. Automatic melanoma detection in dermatological images [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J, Grynbaum MM. Kelly May Get Morning Slot, Shaking Up ‘Today.’ New York Times. 2017 Jan 27;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Canadian Veterinary Journal
ISSN (print)0008-5286

Other styles