How to format your references using the The Canadian Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Canadian Veterinary Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aubret F. Heart rates increase after hatching in two species of Natricine snakes. Sci Rep. 2013 Nov 29;3:3384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simakov DSA, Pérez-Mercader J. Noise induced oscillations and coherence resonance in a generic model of the nonisothermal chemical oscillator. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fouchier RAM, Herfst S, Osterhaus ADME. Public health and biosecurity. Restricted data on influenza H5N1 virus transmission. Science. 2012 Feb 10;335(6069):662–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schneider H, Schuettpelz E, Pryer KM, Cranfill R, Magallón S, Lupia R. Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms. Nature. 2004 Apr 1;428(6982):553–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heitz E, Kreysa G. Grundlagen der Technischen Elektrochemie. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Schultz C, Vind K, editors. Institutions, Equilibria and Efficiency: Essays in Honor of Birgit Grodal. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. XII, 384 p. 21 illus. (Studies in Economic Theory; vol. 25).
A chapter in an edited book
Tiebosch MH, Karimian G, Moshage H. Oxidative Stress and Hepatocellular Injury. In: Albano E, Parola M, editors. Studies on Hepatic Disorders. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 99–112. (Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Canadian Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Andrew D. Flashbulb Memories Of Dramatic Events Aren’t As Accurate As Believed [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares, Service Quality, and Barriers to Entry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Mar. Report No.: RCED-99-92.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moretto L. Exploring the Nature of the Relationship Between Decision-Driven Scenarios and Decision Confidence in High-Velocity Environments [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker P, Schmidt MS, Haberman M. Trump Lashes Out At Russia Inquiry And Its Overseers. New York Times. 2017 Jul 19;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Canadian Veterinary Journal
ISSN (print)0008-5286

Other styles