How to format your references using the The Canadian Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Canadian Veterinary Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parthasarathi A. India: A champion of new technologies. Nature. 2003 Mar 6;422(6927):17–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kulesa PM, Fraser SE. Cell dynamics during somite boundary formation revealed by time-lapse analysis. Science. 2002 Nov 1;298(5595):991–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bloxham J, Zatman S, Dumberry M. The origin of geomagnetic jerks. Nature. 2002 Nov 7;420(6911):65–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zheng X, Pontes O, Zhu J, Miki D, Zhang F, Li W-X, et al. ROS3 is an RNA-binding protein required for DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis. Nature. 2008 Oct 30;455(7217):1259–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Connor K, Aardema F, Pélissier M-C. Beyond Reasonable Doubt. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Ohn SY, Chi SD, editors. Model Design and Simulation Analysis: 15th International Conference, AsiaSim 2015, Jeju, Korea, November 4-7, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Singapore: Springer; 2016. X, 129 p. 90 illus. (Communications in Computer and Information Science; vol. 603).
A chapter in an edited book
Šalak A, Selecká M. Alloying and sintering of manganese steels by manganese vapour. In: Selecká M, editor. Manganese in Powder Metallurgy Steels. Cambridge: Cambridge International Science Publishing Ltd.; 2012. p. 39–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Canadian Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Huge Lighting Storm As Seen From Space [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NHTSA: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Occupant Crash Protection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Apr. Report No.: OGC-97-33.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barnett J. Understanding gender differences in teachers’ level of insight as it relates to ADHD [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dannenberg L. In the Air on the Day the World Changed. New York Times. 2007 Sep 11;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Canadian Veterinary Journal
ISSN (print)0008-5286

Other styles