How to format your references using the The Canadian Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Canadian Veterinary Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bascompte J. Ecology. Structure and dynamics of ecological networks. Science. 2010 Aug 13;329(5993):765–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pandey A, Mann M. Proteomics to study genes and genomes. Nature. 2000 Jun 15;405(6788):837–46.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paniagua-Domínguez R, Abujetas DR, Sánchez-Gil JA. Ultra low-loss, isotropic optical negative-index metamaterial based on hybrid metal-semiconductor nanowires. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1507.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xia Z, Chen H, Kang S-G, Huynh T, Fang JW, Lamothe PA, et al. The complex and specific pMHC interactions with diverse HIV-1 TCR clonotypes reveal a structural basis for alterations in CTL function. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb 13;4:4087.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McKean J. Customer’s New Voice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Fogh Olsen O, Florack L, Kuijper A, editors. Deep Structure, Singularities, and Computer Vision: First International Workshop, DSSCV 2005, Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 9-10, 2005, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. X, 259 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 3753).
A chapter in an edited book
Baize D, van Oort F. Potentially Harmful Elements in Forest Soils. In: Bini C, Bech J, editors. PHEs, Environment and Human Health: Potentially harmful elements in the environment and the impact on human health. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 151–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Canadian Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Andrew D. How Do You Know You’re Not Living In A Computer Simulation? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: TSA Has Made Progress, but Additional Efforts Are Needed to Improve Security. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Sep. Report No.: GAO-11-938T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Felix RC. Strengthening relationships for siblings in foster families: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Thanks for the Tasteless Sermon. New York Times. 2010 Apr 8;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Canadian Veterinary Journal
ISSN (print)0008-5286

Other styles