How to format your references using the The Canadian Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Canadian Veterinary Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xanthos M. Recycling of the #5 polymer. Science. 2012 Aug 10;337(6095):700–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Robertson MP, Scott WG. The structural basis of ribozyme-catalyzed RNA assembly. Science. 2007 Mar 16;315(5818):1549–53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayashi K, Hasegawa J, Matsunaga S. The boundary of the meristematic and elongation zones in roots: endoreduplication precedes rapid cell expansion. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 14;3:2723.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chandramohanadas R, Davis PH, Beiting DP, Harbut MB, Darling C, Velmourougane G, et al. Apicomplexan parasites co-opt host calpains to facilitate their escape from infected cells. Science. 2009 May 8;324(5928):794–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dimond BC. Legal Aspects of Radiography and Radiology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Gallego M, Schofield N, editors. The Political Economy of Social Choices. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XXVIII, 259 p. 30 illus., 14 illus. in color. (Studies in Political Economy).
A chapter in an edited book
Bault J-P, Loeuillet L. Tips and Traps. In: Loeuillet L, editor. The Normal and Pathological Fetal Brain: Ultrasonographic Features. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 131–4.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Canadian Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti A. The Space Around Galaxies Is Full Of Heavy Elements [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Agencies Could Benefit by Better Management of ADP Activities of Government Contractors. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Mar. Report No.: B-115369.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Redcay JD. Kindergarten students’ reading performance and perceptions of Ludus Reading: A mixed-method study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lehman S. A Times Reporter Gets a Surprise Trip to Prison. New York Times. 2017 Mar 29;A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Canadian Veterinary Journal
ISSN (print)0008-5286

Other styles