How to format your references using the International Journal of the Classical Tradition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of the Classical Tradition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hvidberg, C. S. 2000. When Greenland ice melts. Nature 404: 551–552.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, D., and X. L. Ma. 2013. Local decomposition induced by dislocation motions inside tetragonal Al(2)Cu compound: slip system-dependent dynamics. Scientific reports 3: 3157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shema, Reut, Todd Charlton Sacktor, and Yadin Dudai. 2007. Rapid erasure of long-term memory associations in the cortex by an inhibitor of PKM zeta. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317: 951–953.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chang, Ming, Hiroyuki Iizuka, Yasushi Naruse, Hideyuki Ando, and Taro Maeda. 2014. Unconscious learning of auditory discrimination using mismatch negativity (MMN) neurofeedback. Scientific reports 4: 6729.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rombach, Günter. 2010. Spannbetonbau. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Sánchez-Alonso, Salvador, and Ioannis N. Athanasiadis, ed. 2010. Metadata and Semantic Research: 4th International Conference, MTSR 2010, Alcalá de Henares, Spain, October 20-22, 2010. Proceedings. Vol. 108. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Batra, Anu, and Carol S. Portlock. 2011. Principles of Chemotherapy in Hodgkin Lymphoma. In Radiotherapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma, ed. Lena Specht and Joachim Yahalom, 45–52. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of the Classical Tradition.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2016. Was Venus Once A Habitable World Like Earth? IFLScience. IFLScience. August 8.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Airport Funding: Aviation Industry Changes Affect Airport Development Costs and Financing. GAO-14-658T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flynn, Mary Josephine. 2013. Lifeguard employability skills. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2000. Battle Lines on Broadway: Little Slips vs. Big Type. New York Times, September 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of the Classical Tradition
ISSN (print)1073-0508
ISSN (online)1874-6292

Other styles