How to format your references using the International Journal of the Classical Tradition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of the Classical Tradition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaelin, William G., Jr. 2012. Molecular biology. Use and abuse of RNAi to study mammalian gene function. Science (New York, N.Y.) 337: 421–422.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldblatt, Colin, and Kevin J. Zahnle. 2011. Faint young Sun paradox remains. Nature 474: E3-4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kessler, André, Rayko Halitschke, and Ian T. Baldwin. 2004. Silencing the jasmonate cascade: induced plant defenses and insect populations. Science (New York, N.Y.) 305: 665–668.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Aubert, M., P. Setiawan, A. A. Oktaviana, A. Brumm, P. H. Sulistyarto, E. W. Saptomo, B. Istiawan, et al. 2018. Palaeolithic cave art in Borneo. Nature.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lahdenmäki, Tapio, and Michael Leach. 2005. Relational Database Index Design and the Optimizers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Velmezova, Ekaterina, Kalevi Kull, and Stephen J. Cowley, ed. 2015. Biosemiotic Perspectives on Language and Linguistics. 1st ed. 2015. Vol. 13. Biosemiotics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Aronson, Theodore, Arthur Hogan, William O’Brien, Richard Rosenblatt, Lanny Schwartz, Michael Simon, and Wayne Wagner. 2006. Achieving Best Execution Through Market Structure Development. In Electronic vs. Floor Based Trading, ed. Robert A. Schwartz, John Aidan Byrne, and Antoinette Colaninno, 49–66. Zicklin School of Business Financial Markets Conference Series Baruch College. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of the Classical Tradition.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. The Myths And Facts Of HIV And AIDS. IFLScience. IFLScience. December 1.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Commercial Practices: Opportunities Exist to Reduce Aircraft Engine Support Costs. NSIAD-91-240. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Odom, Stephen A. 2017. Electronic health records: Overcoming obstacles to improve acceptance and utilization for mental health clinicians. Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2017. Art’s but a Walking Shadow. New York Times, June 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of the Classical Tradition
ISSN (print)1073-0508
ISSN (online)1874-6292

Other styles