How to format your references using the International Journal of the Classical Tradition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of the Classical Tradition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sjöberg, Britt-Marie. 2010. Biochemistry. A never-ending story. Science (New York, N.Y.) 329: 1475–1476.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rubenstein, Dustin R., and Irby J. Lovette. 2009. Reproductive skew and selection on female ornamentation in social species. Nature 462: 786–789.
A journal article with 3 authors
Garcia, Patricia, Robert Armstrong, and Muhammad H. Zaman. 2014. Models of education in medicine, public health, and engineering. Science (New York, N.Y.) 345: 1281–1283.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wendel, Hans-Guido, Elisa De Stanchina, Jordan S. Fridman, Abba Malina, Sagarika Ray, Scott Kogan, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Jerry Pelletier, and Scott W. Lowe. 2004. Survival signalling by Akt and eIF4E in oncogenesis and cancer therapy. Nature 428: 332–337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, Alan S. 2006. ISO 14000 Environmental Management Standards. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kondo, Motonari, ed. 2010. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Biology. 1st ed. Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Wojnarski, Marcin, Sebastian Stawicki, and Piotr Wojnarowski. 2010. System for Automated Evaluation of Algorithms in Repeatable Experiments. In Rough Sets and Current Trends in Computing: 7th International Conference, RSCTC 2010, Warsaw, Poland, June 28-30,2010. Proceedings, ed. Marcin Szczuka, Marzena Kryszkiewicz, Sheela Ramanna, Richard Jensen, and Qinghua Hu, 20–29. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of the Classical Tradition.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. Huge Crocodile Munches On A Shark. IFLScience. IFLScience. August 7.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. College Work-Study Program at the Bay College of Maryland. 089626. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bigler, William H. 2010. Increased substance abuse treatment for adolescents. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dudiyeva, Fatima, and as Told to. 2005. Three Days and Forever. New York Times, August 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of the Classical Tradition
ISSN (print)1073-0508
ISSN (online)1874-6292

Other styles