How to format your references using the International Journal of the Classical Tradition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of the Classical Tradition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell, Kendall. 2012. Molecular oncology: The positive in the negative. Nature 485: S52-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nix, Paola, and Michael Bastiani. 2013. Neuroscience. Heterochronic genes turn back the clock in old neurons. Science (New York, N.Y.) 340: 282–283.
A journal article with 3 authors
Colón-Ramos, Daniel A., Milica A. Margeta, and Kang Shen. 2007. Glia promote local synaptogenesis through UNC-6 (netrin) signaling in C. elegans. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318: 103–106.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee, Karla, Helen Jessop, Rosemary Suswillo, Gul Zaman, and Lance Lanyon. 2003. Endocrinology: bone adaptation requires oestrogen receptor-alpha. Nature 424: 389.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bradford, Richard. 2015. Is Shakespeare Any Good? Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Anderson, Ty. 2010. Beginning Microsoft Word 2010. Edited by Guy Hart-Davis, Clay Andres, Steve Anglin, Mark Beckner, Ewan Buckingham, Gary Cornell, Jonathan Gennick, et al. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, Vivienne, and Elias G. Carayannis. 2012. Results. In Promoting Balanced Competitiveness Strategies of Firms in Developing Countries, ed. Elias G. Carayannis, 73–89. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of the Classical Tradition.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. The Winners And Losers At This Year’s Global Wildlife Summit. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 6.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Intermodal Transportation: Results of GAO’s Survey on Air-Rail Connectivity (GAO-13-692SP, August 2013), an E-supplement to GAO-13-691. GAO-13-692SP. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Best, Timothy F. 2014. Evaluation of effectiveness, reproducibility, and repeatability of using dentition for estimating cattle age. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, A. L. 2014. Nebraska University Chief Is Chosen to Lead CUNY. New York Times, January 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of the Classical Tradition
ISSN (print)1073-0508
ISSN (online)1874-6292

Other styles