How to format your references using the Critical Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerbel, R. S. (2006). Antiangiogenic therapy: a universal chemosensitization strategy for cancer? Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5777), 1171–1175.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stark, C. P., & Stieglitz, M. (2000). Hydrology. The sting in a fractal tail. Nature, 403(6769), 493, 495.
A journal article with 3 authors
GrandPré, T., Li, S., & Strittmatter, S. M. (2002). Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide promotes axonal regeneration. Nature, 417(6888), 547–551.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Weber, K. L., Sokac, A. M., Berg, J. S., Cheney, R. E., & Bement, W. M. (2004). A microtubule-binding myosin required for nuclear anchoring and spindle assembly. Nature, 431(7006), 325–329.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Retherford, R. D., & Choe, M. K. (1993). Statistical Models for Causal Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zou, Y. (2016). Physical-Layer Security for Cooperative Relay Networks. (J. Zhu, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ryan, C. K., Krueger, G. R. F., & Chandrasekhar, C. (2013). Pathology of the Liver, Biliary System, and Exocrine Pancreas. In G. R. F. Krueger & L. M. Buja (Eds.), Atlas of Anatomic Pathology with Imaging: A Correlative Diagnostic Companion (pp. 231–285). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Criminology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 29). Ancient Exoplanet Discovery Boosts Chances Of Finding Alien Life. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). NASA’s Customer Satisfaction Measurements (No. NSIAD-97-81R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koenig, W. E. (2010). Leadership for the whole in the mythic field of C. G. Jung’s unconscious processes (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, July 14). Star-Struck. New York Times, p. BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kerbel 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kerbel 2006; Stark and Stieglitz 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stark and Stieglitz 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Weber et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Criminology
AbbreviationCrit. Crim.
ISSN (print)1205-8629
ISSN (online)1572-9877
Sociology and Political Science

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