How to format your references using the Critical Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, A. (2002). Screening for drug discovery: the leading question. Nature, 418(6896), 453–459.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sanders, R. W., & Moore, J. P. (2014). HIV: A stamp on the envelope. Nature, 514(7523), 437–438.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anuar, T. S., Salleh, F. M., & Moktar, N. (2014). Soil-transmitted helminth infections and associated risk factors in three Orang Asli tribes in Peninsular Malaysia. Scientific reports, 4, 4101.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Essers, M. A. G., Offner, S., Blanco-Bose, W. E., Waibler, Z., Kalinke, U., Duchosal, M. A., & Trumpp, A. (2009). IFNalpha activates dormant haematopoietic stem cells in vivo. Nature, 458(7240), 904–908.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fitschen, K. (2013). Building Reliable Trading Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schmitz, U., Wolkenhauer, O., & Vera, J. (Eds.). (2013). MicroRNA Cancer Regulation: Advanced Concepts, Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Tools (Vol. 774). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Andrews, R. C. (2016). Medical Management of Obesity. In S. Agrawal (Ed.), Obesity, Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery: A Practical Guide (pp. 39–49). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Criminology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 15). Ancient DNA Sheds Light on the Origin of Europeans. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Chemical Assessments: EPA’s New Assessment Process Will Further Limit the Productivity and Credibility of Its Integrated Risk Information System (No. GAO-08-810T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller, C. K. (2006). Incidence and Characterization of Oral Motor, Pharyngeal, and Cervical Esophageal Swallowing Dysfunction in Pediatric Patients with Chiari 1 Malformation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. (2005, March 24). Arts, Briefly; Bolshoi Opens Controversial Opera. New York Times, p. E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Sanders and Moore 2014; Smith 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sanders and Moore 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Essers et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Criminology
AbbreviationCrit. Crim.
ISSN (print)1205-8629
ISSN (online)1572-9877
Sociology and Political Science

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