How to format your references using the Critical Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butts, C. T. (2009). Revisiting the foundations of network analysis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5939), 414–416.
A journal article with 2 authors
Verheyden, J. M., & Sun, X. (2008). An Fgf/Gremlin inhibitory feedback loop triggers termination of limb bud outgrowth. Nature, 454(7204), 638–641.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tahir, M., Sabeeh, K., & Schwingenschlögl, U. (2013). Quantum capacitance of an ultrathin topological insulator film in a magnetic field. Scientific reports, 3, 1261.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Prystowsky, M., Feeney, K., Kawachi, N., Montagna, C., Willmott, M., Wasson, C., et al. (2013). Inhibition of Plk1 and Cyclin B1 expression results in panobinostat-induced G₂ delay and mitotic defects. Scientific reports, 3, 2640.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Van Der Pijl, P., Solomon, L. K., & Lokitz, J. (2016). How To Design a Better Business. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Onken, R. (2010). System-Ergonomic Design of Cognitive Automation: Dual-Mode Cognitive Design of Vehicle Guidance and Control Work Systems. (A. Schulte, Ed.) (Vol. 235). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Neelameggham, N. R., & Davis, B. R. (2016). Thermal Wastes from Energy Conversions and Global Anthropogenic Warming. In A. Jha, C. Wang, N. R. Neelameggham, D. P. Guillen, L. Li, C. K. Belt, et al. (Eds.), Energy Technology 2015: Carbon Dioxide Management and Other Technologies (pp. 29–35). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Criminology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, September 29). 1 In 10 South African Children May Have A Natural Defense Against AIDS. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Transportation Infrastructure: Advantages and Disadvantages of Wrap-Up Insurance for Large Construction Projects (No. RCED-99-155). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Calhoun, G. F. (2009). Limit theory for overfit models (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J. (2016, September 17). Judge Allows Departure of 7 Chimps to England. New York Times, p. A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butts 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Butts 2009; Verheyden and Sun 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Verheyden and Sun 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Prystowsky et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Criminology
AbbreviationCrit. Crim.
ISSN (print)1205-8629
ISSN (online)1572-9877
Sociology and Political Science

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