How to format your references using the Critical Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ihde, D. (2000). Epistemology engines. Nature, 406(6791), 21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clift, P. D., & Blusztajn, J. (2005). Reorganization of the western Himalayan river system after five million years ago. Nature, 438(7070), 1001–1003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kärkäs, M. D., Matsuura, B. S., & Stephenson, C. R. J. (2015). ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Enchained by visible light-mediated photoredox catalysis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6254), 1285–1286.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Banyard, J., Chung, I., Wilson, A. M., Vetter, G., Le Béchec, A., Bielenberg, D. R., & Zetter, B. R. (2013). Regulation of epithelial plasticity by miR-424 and miR-200 in a new prostate cancer metastasis model. Scientific reports, 3, 3151.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bojar, R. M. (2010). Manual of Perioperative Care in Adult Cardiac Surgery. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Kumar, P., Gupta, V. K., Tiwari, A. K., & Kamle, M. (Eds.). (2016). Current Trends in Plant Disease Diagnostics and Management Practices. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Chau, M., Sriskandha, S. E., Thérien-Aubin, H., & Kumacheva, E. (2015). Supramolecular Nanofibrillar Polymer Hydrogels. In S. Seiffert (Ed.), Supramolecular Polymer Networks and Gels (pp. 167–208). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Criminology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, December 8). John Glenn, First American To Orbit The Earth, Dies At 95. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Telecommunications: German DTV Transition Differs from U.S. Transition in Many Respects, but Certain Key Challenges Are Similar (No. GAO-04-926T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eldanaf, R. G. (2012). Angry Cherub (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., & Pear, R. (2017, July 27). Former Obama Aides Lead Opposition to the Effort to Repeal the Health Law. New York Times, p. A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ihde 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Clift and Blusztajn 2005; Ihde 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clift and Blusztajn 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Banyard et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Criminology
AbbreviationCrit. Crim.
ISSN (print)1205-8629
ISSN (online)1572-9877
Sociology and Political Science

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