How to format your references using the Critical Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schreiner, P. R. (2010). Chemistry. Cooperativity tames reactive catalysts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5968), 965–966.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lutz, W., & Kc, S. (2011). Global human capital: integrating education and population. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6042), 587–592.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lopinski, G. P., Wayner, D. D., & Wolkow, R. A. (2000). Self-directed growth of molecular nanostructures on silicon. Nature, 406(6791), 48–51.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shinoda, T., Ogawa, H., Cornelius, F., & Toyoshima, C. (2009). Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump at 2.4 A resolution. Nature, 459(7245), 446–450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Singer, B., & Fedorinchik, G. (2009). Investment Leadership and Portfolio Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Foulkes, W. D., & Cooney, K. A. (Eds.). (2010). Male Reproductive Cancers: Epidemiology, Pathology and Genetics. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Poth, S. (2014). Changing Strategies and Control Systems at a German Insurance Company. In E. Jannesson, F. Nilsson, & B. Rapp (Eds.), Strategy, Control and Competitive Advantage: Case Study Evidence (pp. 107–137). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Criminology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, February 2). Anti-Pollution And Anti-Corruption Laws To Be Repealed By Congress. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Electronic Government: Additional OMB Leadership Needed to Optimize Use of New Federal Employee Identification Cards (No. GAO-08-292). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Waterman, M. A. (2015). Housing for the homeless mentally ill population: A grant writing project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, January 13). Coaches Come and Go, Except JoePa. New York Times, p. B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schreiner 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Lutz and Kc 2011; Schreiner 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lutz and Kc 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Shinoda et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Criminology
AbbreviationCrit. Crim.
ISSN (print)1205-8629
ISSN (online)1572-9877
Sociology and Political Science

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