How to format your references using the Critical Criminology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Criminology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buratowski, S. (2012). Gene expression: transcription initiation unwrapped. Nature, 483(7389), 286–287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nakatani, H., & Yamaguchi, Y. (2014). Quick concurrent responses to global and local cognitive information underlie intuitive understanding in board-game experts. Scientific reports, 4, 5894.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Q., Piston, D. W., & Goodman, R. H. (2002). Regulation of corepressor function by nuclear NADH. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5561), 1895–1897.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
O’Dowd, C. D., Aalto, P., Hmeri, K., Kulmala, M., & Hoffmann, T. (2002). Aerosol formation: atmospheric particles from organic vapours. Nature, 416(6880), 497–498.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kossiakoff, A., & Sweet, W. N. (2005). Systems Engineering Principles and Practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ren, S. Y. (Ed.). (2006). Electronic States in Crystals of Finite Size: Quantum Confinement of Bloch Waves (Vol. 212). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Frelin, A., & Grannäs, J. (2014). Navigating Middle Ground. In D. Zandvliet, P. D. Brok, T. Mainhard, & J. van Tartwijk (Eds.), Interpersonal Relationships in Education: From Theory to Practice (pp. 57–69). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Criminology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 16). Divers Find The Flying Spaghetti Monster Under The Ocean. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Aviation Security: Airport Perimeter and Access Control Security Would Benefit from Risk Assessment and Strategy Updates (No. GAO-16-632). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mannar, N. K. (2017). Hri-Tech Consultants, LLC (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, March 4). Syndergaard Has to Take Mets’ Offer. New York Times, p. D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buratowski 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Buratowski 2012; Nakatani and Yamaguchi 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nakatani and Yamaguchi 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (O’Dowd et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Criminology
AbbreviationCrit. Crim.
ISSN (print)1205-8629
ISSN (online)1572-9877
Sociology and Political Science

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