How to format your references using the Gynecological Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gynecological Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May M (2013) Regenerative medicine: Rebuilding the backbone. Nature 503:S7-9
A journal article with 2 authors
Hemphill CS, Sampat B (2013) Intellectual property. Drug patents at the Supreme Court. Science 339:1386–1387
A journal article with 3 authors
Patt AG, Ogallo L, Hellmuth M (2007) Sustainability. Learning from 10 years of climate outlook forums in Africa. Science 318:49–50
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fang W, Lu H-L, King GF, St Leger RJ (2014) Construction of a hypervirulent and specific mycoinsecticide for locust control. Sci Rep 4:7345

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barquinha P, Martins R, Pereira L, Fortunato E (2012) Transparent Oxide Electronics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Gervasi O, Taniar D, Murgante B, et al (2009) Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2009: International Conference, Seoul, Korea, June 29-July 2, 2009, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Anderson DG (2016) Pedicle-Lengthening Osteotomy for the Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. In: Manfrè L (ed) Spinal Canal Stenosis. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 75–85

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gynecological Surgery.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Bluebirds Shout Their Songs When it Gets Noisy. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Federal Chief Information Officers: Opportunities Exist to Improve Role in Information Technology Management. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Urquidi AJ (2015) Condolences to all of you: Late eulogies of a half-complacent birthday boy. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grisham J (2017) John Grisham’s Suggestions for Writing Popular Fiction. New York Times BR31

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGynecological Surgery
AbbreviationGynecol. Surg.
ISSN (print)1613-2076
ISSN (online)1613-2084
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology

Other styles