How to format your references using the Gynecological Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gynecological Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewis R (2004) Growth industry. Nature 428:348–349
A journal article with 2 authors
Hu EM, Cowie LL (2006) High-redshift galaxy populations. Nature 440:1145–1150
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith DE, Zuber MT, Neumann GA (2001) Seasonal variations of snow depth on Mars. Science 294:2141–2146
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yang J, Smith MR, Lan T, et al (2014) Articulated Wiwaxia from the Cambrian Stage 3 Xiaoshiba lagerstätte. Sci Rep 4:4643

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lewis RJ Sr (2008) Hazardous Chemicals Desk Reference, Sixth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kubitzki K (2011) Flowering Plants. Eudicots: Sapindales, Cucurbitales, Myrtaceae. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
de Hoop H, Narasimhan B (2009) Ergative Case-marking in Hindi. In: Hoop H de, Swart P de (eds) Differential Subject Marking. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 63–78

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gynecological Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Ada Lovelace Blazed A Trail In Science – We Need More Women To Follow In Her Footsteps. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) The Department of Education’s Actions To Collect Defaulted Student Loans. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schoenecker KD (2010) Determinants of life satisfaction: Generated and ranked by undergraduate college students. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Now It’s the Astros in Charge. New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGynecological Surgery
AbbreviationGynecol. Surg.
ISSN (print)1613-2076
ISSN (online)1613-2084
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology

Other styles