How to format your references using the Gynecological Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gynecological Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Woolston C (2015) Breast cancer. Nature 527:S101
A journal article with 2 authors
Philip N, Waters AP (2013) Microbiology. Unveiling the malaria parasite’s cloak of invisibility? Science 340:936–937
A journal article with 3 authors
van den Engh G, Nelson P, Roach J (2000) Numismatic gyrations. Nature 408:540
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zeng Y, Xie X, Duan J, et al (2014) Perturbation of mitiglinide metabolism by chronic unpredicted mild stress in rats. Sci Rep 4:3794

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tang C (2016) The Data Industry: The Business and Economics of Information and Big Data. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Patel B (2016) Endodontic Treatment, Retreatment, and Surgery: Mastering Clinical Practice. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Gullà F, Ceccacci S, Germani M, Cavalieri L (2015) Design Adaptable and Adaptive User Interfaces: A Method to Manage the Information. In: Andò B, Siciliano P, Marletta V, Monteriù A (eds) Ambient Assisted Living: Italian Forum 2014. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 47–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gynecological Surgery.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) New Orleans Is In Big Trouble. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Vocational Education: Information on the National Research Center’s Grant Award Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis SS (2006) Identification of Stress-Responsive Genes in the Early Larval Stage of the Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Baseball Could Wait Until School Was Done. New York Times B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGynecological Surgery
AbbreviationGynecol. Surg.
ISSN (print)1613-2076
ISSN (online)1613-2084
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology

Other styles