How to format your references using the International Journal of Sport Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Sport Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spence K. Ancient Egyptian chronology and the astronomical orientation of pyramids. Nature 2000; 408: 320–324
A journal article with 2 authors
Watanabe R, Noji H. Characterization of the temperature-sensitive reaction of F1-ATPase by using single-molecule manipulation. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 4962
A journal article with 3 authors
Coulson T, Lindström J, Cotgreave P. Ecology. Seeking new recruits. Science 2002; 295: 2023–2024
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zeebe RE, Zachos JC, Caldeira K, Tyrrell T. Oceans. Carbon emissions and acidification. Science 2008; 321: 51–52

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Derryberry DR. Basic Data Analysis for Time Series with R. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014
An edited book
Zhukov A (ed.). Novel Functional Magnetic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016
A chapter in an edited book
Keck ME, Müller MB. Mutagenesis and Knockout Models: Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical System. In: Holsboer F, Ströhle A (eds.). Anxiety and Anxiolytic Drugs. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005: 113–141

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Sport Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Biological Pacemaker Developed Using Gene Therapy. IFLScience 2014; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Metropolitan Planning Organizations: Options Exist to Enhance Transportation Planning Capacity and Federal Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Latronica AN. The effect of emotion regulation on stress and the role of executive function. 2016;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski S. Where Charter Schools Outperform. New York Times 2015; BU6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [4–6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Sport Medicine
AbbreviationInt. J. Sports Med.
ISSN (print)0172-4622
ISSN (online)1439-3964
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles