How to format your references using the International Journal of Sport Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Sport Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ciais P. Journal club. A geoscientist is astounded by Earth’s huge frozen carbon deposits. Nature 2009; 462: 393
A journal article with 2 authors
Mendelsohn ME, Karas RH. Molecular and cellular basis of cardiovascular gender differences. Science 2005; 308: 1583–1587
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee D, Lin B-J, Lee AK. Hippocampal place fields emerge upon single-cell manipulation of excitability during behavior. Science 2012; 337: 849–853
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yoshida K, Toyoura K, Matsunaga K, Nakahira A, Kurata H, Ikuhara YH, Sasaki Y. Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 2457

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Riches J. Galatians Through the Centuries. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2008
An edited book
Ortuño F, Rojas I (eds.). Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering: Third International Conference, IWBBIO 2015, Granada, Spain, April 15-17, 2015, Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015
A chapter in an edited book
Bresch D, Desjardins B, Grenier E. Oscillatory Limits with Changing Eigenvalues: A Formal Study. In: Fursikov AV, Galdi GP, Pukhnachev VV (eds.). New Directions in Mathematical Fluid Mechanics: The Alexander V. Kazhikhov Memorial Volume. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2010: 91–104

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Sport Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Company Patents Design For A Space Elevator, But Don’t Get Your Hopes Up Just Yet. IFLScience 2015; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Offsets: Improvements to Program Design Could Better Assist Older Student Loan Borrowers with Obtaining Permitted Relief. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2016

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glock M. Cultural futuristics: Bringing consciousness to cultural complexes and soul to scenario based planning. 2008;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Debt Plan Still Fragile for Puerto Rico Utility, Lawmakers Are Told. New York Times 2016; B5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,5,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Sport Medicine
AbbreviationInt. J. Sports Med.
ISSN (print)0172-4622
ISSN (online)1439-3964
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles