How to format your references using the International Journal of Sport Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Sport Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bruneau BG. The developmental genetics of congenital heart disease. Nature 2008; 451: 943–948
A journal article with 2 authors
Cuervo R, Chimal-Monroy J. Chemical activation of RARβ induces post-embryonically bilateral limb duplication during Xenopus limb regeneration. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 1886
A journal article with 3 authors
Gao F, Ding Z, Meng S. Three-dimensional metal-intercalated covalent organic frameworks for near-ambient energy storage. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 1882
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mao H, Yu H, Chen J, Liao X. Biphasic catalysis using amphiphilic polyphenols-chelated noble metals as highly active and selective catalysts. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 2226

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Demaria C. Introduction to Private Equity. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2013
An edited book
Burkov VN. Control Mechanisms for Ecological-Economic Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015
A chapter in an edited book
Horesh D, Solomon Z, Keinan G, Ein-Dor T. Delayed-Onset PTSD in Israeli Combat Veterans: Correlates, Clinical Picture, and Controversy. In: Safir MP, Wallach HS, Rizzo A “skip” (eds.). Future Directions in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2015: 97–129

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Sport Medicine.

Blog post
Hale T. Video Games Could Be A Tool To Help People Out Of Depression. IFLScience 2017; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Challenges in Commercializing Technologies Developed under the Small Business Innovation Research Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spruill EL. A correlational analysis relating organizational climate to employee performance: A case study. 2008;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Calvert MF. A Hush Falls Where Rockets Once Roared. New York Times 2013; BU8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,4,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Sport Medicine
AbbreviationInt. J. Sports Med.
ISSN (print)0172-4622
ISSN (online)1439-3964
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles