How to format your references using the Biota Neotropica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biota Neotropica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MAREC, F. 2014. Developmental genetics: Female silkworms have the sex factor. Nature 509(7502):570–571.
A journal article with 2 authors
DEVOS, D.P. & REYNAUD, E.G. 2010. Evolution. Intermediate steps. Science 330(6008):1187–1188.
A journal article with 3 authors
HULLEMAN, F., VAN KERKWIJK, M.H. & KULKARNI, S.R. 2000. An optical counterpart to the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U0142+61. Nature 408(6813):689–692.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
MURAKAMI, K.S., MASUDA, S., CAMPBELL, E.A., MUZZIN, O. & DARST, S.A. 2002. Structural basis of transcription initiation: an RNA polymerase holoenzyme-DNA complex. Science 296(5571):1285–1290.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
KNUDSEN, S. 2005. A Biologist’s Guide to Analysis of DNA Microarray Data. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
KHALIL, M.M., ed. 2011. Basic Sciences of Nuclear Medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
RICHARDSON, H.W., PAN, Q., GORDON, P., MOORE, J.E., PARK, J. & NGYUEN, C. 2015. A Bomb Attack on a Shopping Mall. In Regional Economic Impacts of Terrorist Attacks, Natural Disasters and Metropolitan Policies (H. W. Richardson, Q. Pan, J. Park, & J. E. Moore II, eds) Springer International Publishing, Cham, p.87–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biota Neotropica.

Blog post
LUNTZ, S. 2016. Low Fat Chocolate Has Potential To Electrify Production. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1982. Impact of Funding on Materials R&D Programs in the Departments of Energy and Commerce, and NASA Since FY 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
GRAHAM, H.H. 2010. Leadership as co-influencing: A heuristic narrative study of dynamic co-emergence within the leadership relationship. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
BILLARD, M. 2010. Think Green and Young. New York Times E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marec 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Marec 2014, Devos & Reynaud 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Devos & Reynaud 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Murakami et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiota Neotropica
ISSN (print)1676-0603
ISSN (online)1676-0611
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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