How to format your references using the Biota Neotropica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biota Neotropica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
GAVAGHAN, H. 2001. A grassroots revolution. Nature 414(6860):6–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
HERNANZ, M. & SALA, G. 2002. A classical nova, V2487 Oph 1998, seen in x-rays before and after its explosion. Science 298(5592):393–395.
A journal article with 3 authors
HENIKOFF, S., AHMAD, K. & MALIK, H.S. 2001. The centromere paradox: stable inheritance with rapidly evolving DNA. Science 293(5532):1098–1102.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
MURDOCK, C.C., BLANFORD, S., HUGHES, G.L., RASGON, J.L. & THOMAS, M.B. 2014. Temperature alters Plasmodium blocking by Wolbachia. Sci. Rep. 43932.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
ELIAS, H.-G. 2009. Macromolecules. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
PAPAVASSILIOU, S. & RUEHRUP, S., eds. 2015. Ad-hoc, Mobile, and Wireless Networks: 14th International Conference, ADHOC-NOW 2015, Athens, Greece, June 29 -- July 1, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
CHEN, N., WANG, C., HAN, P., ZHANG, J., WANG, K., DAI, E., KANG, W., YANG, F., SUN, B. & GUO, G. 2016. Research About Solutions to the Bottleneck of Big Data Processing in Power System. In Industrial IoT Technologies and Applications: International Conference, Industrial IoT 2016, GuangZhou, China, March 25-26, 2016, Revised Selected Papers (J. Wan, I. Humar, & D. Zhang, eds) Springer International Publishing, Cham, p.44–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biota Neotropica.

Blog post
ANDREW, D. 2016. Cracked It! A 30-Year Cold Case Involving An Egg And The Mysterious Night Parrot. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1989. FAA Training: Continued Improvements Needed in FAA’s Controller Field Training Program.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
ODOM, S.A. 2017. Electronic health records: Overcoming obstacles to improve acceptance and utilization for mental health clinicians. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
PILON, M. 2013. A Different Way of Taking Off at J.F.K. New York Times D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gavaghan 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Gavaghan 2001, Hernanz & Sala 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hernanz & Sala 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Murdock et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiota Neotropica
ISSN (print)1676-0603
ISSN (online)1676-0611
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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