How to format your references using the Biota Neotropica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biota Neotropica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
HOLMES, N. 2008. Immunology. A splicing switch for T cells. Science 321(5889):646–647.
A journal article with 2 authors
MÜLLER, F.-J. & SCHUPPERT, A. 2011. Few inputs can reprogram biological networks. Nature 478(7369):E4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
MILLY, P.C.D., DUNNE, K.A. & VECCHIA, A.V. 2005. Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate. Nature 438(7066):347–350.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
EGGAN, K., JURGA, S., GOSDEN, R., MIN, I.M. & WAGERS, A.J. 2006. Ovulated oocytes in adult mice derive from non-circulating germ cells. Nature 441(7097):1109–1114.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
WAGNER, D. 2012. Trading ETFs. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
ZHONG, Z., ed. 2013. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2012: Volume 2. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
HERRANZ, J., LAGUILLAUMIE, F., LIBERT, B. & RÀFOLS, C. 2012. Short Attribute-Based Signatures for Threshold Predicates. In Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2012: The Cryptographers’ Track at the RSA Conference 2012, San Francisco, CA, USA, February 27 – March 2, 2012. Proceedings (O. Dunkelman, ed.) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, p.51–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biota Neotropica.

Blog post
ANDREW, E. 2015. Penta-Graphene Is Latest Structural Arrangement of Carbon. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1976. Examination of the Treatment of Peer Reviewers’ Comments on Support for the “Individualized Science Instructional System” Project.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LAUBACHER, T.L. 2016. Simplifying “Inherently Governmental” Functions: Choosing between a Principled Approach or More of the Same. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
WAGNER, J. 2017. Houston’s Bregman Works on Hitting, Fielding and Spanish. New York Times SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holmes 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Holmes 2008, Müller & Schuppert 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Müller & Schuppert 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Eggan et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiota Neotropica
ISSN (print)1676-0603
ISSN (online)1676-0611
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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