How to format your references using the Biota Neotropica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biota Neotropica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MELLMAN, I. 2001. Setting logical priorities. Nature 410(6832):1026.
A journal article with 2 authors
SHARMA, P. & ALLISON, J.P. 2012. Retrospective. Lloyd J. Old (1933-2011). Science 335(6064):49.
A journal article with 3 authors
HAMILTON, M.J., WALKER, R.S. & KESLER, D.C. 2014. Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America. Sci. Rep. 44541.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
LITTLE, W., KARATUTLU, A., BOLMATOV, D., TRACHENKO, K., SAPELKIN, A.V., CIBIN, G., TAYLOR, R., MOSSELMANS, F., DENT, A.J. & MOUNTJOY, G. 2014. Structural origin of light emission in germanium quantum dots. Sci. Rep. 47372.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
EDGERTON, M. 2013. A Practitioner’s Guide to Effective Maritime and Port Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
BORCARD, D. 2011. Numerical Ecology with R. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
MKOMWA, S., KAUMBUTHO, P. & MAKUNGU, P. 2015. Farm Machinery for Conservation Agriculture. In Conservation Agriculture (M. Farooq & K. H. M. Siddique, eds) Springer International Publishing, Cham, p.109–131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biota Neotropica.

Blog post
ANDREW, D. 2015. NASA Tests Flying Saucer. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1992. Desert Shield/Storm: U.S. Transportation Command’s Support of Operation.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
FREUND, S.H. 2013. The Relationship of Academic Courses to Skills Required Of Automobile Repair Technicians. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MCBRIDE, M., BLACKMON, T., REID, F. & SKINNER, B.W. 2017. Don’t Wait For a Perfect Protest. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mellman 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Mellman 2001, Sharma & Allison 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sharma & Allison 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Little et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiota Neotropica
ISSN (print)1676-0603
ISSN (online)1676-0611
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles