How to format your references using the Technology, Innovation and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Innovation and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holden C (2000) DIVERSITY: Parity as a Goal Sparks Bitter Battle. Science 289:380
A journal article with 2 authors
Park J, Yook S-H (2014) Bayesian inference of natural rankings in incomplete competition networks. Sci Rep 4:6212
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoskinson E, Packard RE, Haard TM (2005) Oscillatory motion: quantum whistling in superfluid helium-4. Nature 433:376
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liu H, Lv M, Deng B, et al (2014) Laundering durable antibacterial cotton fabrics grafted with pomegranate-shaped polymer wrapped in silver nanoparticle aggregations. Sci Rep 4:5920

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Campbell AK (2014) Intracellular Calcium. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Mohapatra S (2014) Cloud Computing and ROI: A New Framework for IT Strategy. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Kou G, Ergu D, Peng Y, Shi Y (2013) IBMM for Questionnaire Design Improvement. In: Ergu D, Peng Y, Shi Y (eds) Data Processing for the AHP/ANP. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 77–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Innovation and Education.

Blog post
Evans K (2017) World’s First Skyscraper Designed To Hang Suspended From An Asteroid. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Highway Safety: Motorcycle Helmet Laws Save Lives and Reduce Costs to Society. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maddox AL (2017) Secondary Structure Analysis of the C-Terminus of Gα-Interacting Vesicle Associated Protein Using Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) Putting It Together, Piece by Piece. New York Times E6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holden 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Holden 2000; Park and Yook 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Park and Yook 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Innovation and Education
AbbreviationTechnol. Innov. Educ.
ISSN (online)2197-9855

Other styles