How to format your references using the Technology, Innovation and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Innovation and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller DAB (2015) Applied Optics. Sorting out light. Science 347:1423–1424
A journal article with 2 authors
An SJ, Almers W (2004) Tracking SNARE complex formation in live endocrine cells. Science 306:1042–1046
A journal article with 3 authors
Mitchell KJ, Cooper A, Phillips MJ (2015) Comment on “Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds.” Science 349:1460
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Timpson N, Heron J, Smith GD, Enard W (2007) Comment on papers by Evans et al. and Mekel-Bobrov et al. on Evidence for Positive Selection of MCPH1 and ASPM. Science 317:1036; author reply 1036

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cortada JW (2014) The Essential Manager. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Abtew W (2013) Evaporation and Evapotranspiration: Measurements and Estimations. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Horneck G, Rettberg P, Facius R, Scherer K (2006) Quantification of Biological Effectiveness of UV Radiation. In: Ghetti F, Checcucci G, Bornman JF (eds) Environmental UV Radiation: Impact on Ecosystems and Human Health and Predictive Models: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Environmental UV Radiation: Impact on Ecosystems and Human Health and Predictive Models Pisa, Italy June 2001. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 51–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Innovation and Education.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) How Will British Science Be Affected If The UK Votes To Leave The EU? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Traffic Safety Data: State Data System Quality Varies and Limited Resources and Coordination Can Inhibit Further Progress. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abuzainab N (2013) Energy and security aspects of wireless networks: Performance and tradeoffs. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2002) Few Kind Words Are Heard for a Proposed Economic Zone. New York Times 146

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller 2015).
This sentence cites two references (An and Almers 2004; Miller 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (An and Almers 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Timpson et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Innovation and Education
AbbreviationTechnol. Innov. Educ.
ISSN (online)2197-9855

Other styles