How to format your references using the Technology, Innovation and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Innovation and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Staunton H (2008) Arousal by stimulation of deep-brain nuclei. Nature 452:E1; discussion E1-2
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang Y, Kalderon D (2001) Hedgehog acts as a somatic stem cell factor in the Drosophila ovary. Nature 410:599–604
A journal article with 3 authors
Martinez-Mateo J, Elkouss D, Martin V (2013) Key reconciliation for high performance quantum key distribution. Sci Rep 3:1576
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Journet L, Agrain C, Broz P, Cornelis GR (2003) The needle length of bacterial injectisomes is determined by a molecular ruler. Science 302:1757–1760

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woolley T (2013) Low Impact Building. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford
An edited book
Rizzo R, Lisboa PJG (eds) (2011) Computational Intelligence Methods for Bioinformatics and Biostatistics: 7th International Meeting, CIBB 2010, Palermo, Italy, September 16-18, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Kagan V, Rossini E, Sapounas D (2013) Text Analytics. In: Rossini E, Sapounas D (eds) Sentiment Analysis for PTSD Signals. Springer, New York, NY, pp 21–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Innovation and Education.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) 6,000-Year-Old Amulet Represents A Tech That Helped Take Humanity Into Space. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Close Air Support: Comparison of Air Force and Marine Corps Requirements and Aircraft. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allison CL (2015) An Investigation into the Experiences of Traditional Higher Education Instructors Transitioning into Effective Online Instructors. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1993) What Price Beauty? Oh, Say $2,000 or So. New York Times A15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Staunton 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Zhang and Kalderon 2001; Staunton 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Kalderon 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Journet et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Innovation and Education
AbbreviationTechnol. Innov. Educ.
ISSN (online)2197-9855
Scope

Other styles