How to format your references using the Technology, Innovation and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Innovation and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
La Madeleine BL (2007) Lost in translation. Nature 445:454–455
A journal article with 2 authors
Leuenberger MN, Loss D (2001) Quantum computing in molecular magnets. Nature 410:789–793
A journal article with 3 authors
Shim SH, Duffy TS, Shen G (2001) Stability and structure of MgSiO3 perovskite to 2300-kilometer depth in Earth’s mantle. Science 293:2437–2440
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chiu Y-L, Soros VB, Kreisberg JF, et al (2005) Cellular APOBEC3G restricts HIV-1 infection in resting CD4+ T cells. Nature 435:108–114

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Furmston M (2008) Powell-Smith & Furmston’s Building Contract Casebook. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Yin R (ed) (2009) An Integrated Assessment of China’s Ecological Restoration Programs. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Sorour MK, El-Sakhawy A (2016) On the Evolution of Corporate Governance Culture in Africa: The Case of the Egyptian Banking Sector. In: Howell KE, Sorour MK (eds) Corporate Governance in Africa: Assessing Implementation and Ethical Perspectives. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 69–96

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Innovation and Education.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) White Shark Populations Are Growing. Here’s Why That’s Good News. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/white-shark-populations-are-growing-here-s-why-s-good-news/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Electronic Government: Funding of the Office of Management and Budget’s Initiatives. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tuschall A (2017) Exploration of the Relationship Between Implicit Theory of Intelligence and Employability. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmitt E, Qiu L (2017) Digging Into Argument For a Wall on the Border. New York Times A24

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (La Madeleine 2007).
This sentence cites two references (La Madeleine 2007, [CSL STYLE ERROR: reference with no printed form.]).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Leuenberger and Loss 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Chiu et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Innovation and Education
AbbreviationTechnol. Innov. Educ.
ISSN (online)2197-9855
Scope

Other styles