How to format your references using the Technology, Innovation and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Innovation and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pulverer B (2010) Transparency showcases strength of peer review. Nature 468:29–31
A journal article with 2 authors
Buluta I, Nori F (2009) Quantum simulators. Science 326:108–111
A journal article with 3 authors
Raihani NJ, Grutter AS, Bshary R (2010) Punishers benefit from third-party punishment in fish. Science 327:171
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Salahudeen AA, Thompson JW, Ruiz JC, et al (2009) An E3 ligase possessing an iron-responsive hemerythrin domain is a regulator of iron homeostasis. Science 326:722–726

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Featherstone H, Holt E (2011) Small Animal Ophthalmology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Spaccapietra S (ed) (2009) Journal on Data Semantics XII. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Marin JR, Wärnberg J, Nova E, et al (2010) Neuroimmunomodulation, Stress–Nutrition Interactions and Diet. In: Watson RR, Zibadi S, Preedy VR (eds) Dietary Components and Immune Function. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 75–87

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Innovation and Education.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Dramatic Attempt To Rescue Two Sick Workers From South Pole Succeeds. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) School District Officials Face Problems in Dealing With Asbestos in Their Schools. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Uzan E (2017) Secondary Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers’ Processes of Selection and Integration of Technology. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011) Indomitable Russell Values One Accolade Above the Rest. New York Times SP1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pulverer 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Buluta and Nori 2009; Pulverer 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Buluta and Nori 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Salahudeen et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Innovation and Education
AbbreviationTechnol. Innov. Educ.
ISSN (online)2197-9855

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