How to format your references using the Technology, Innovation and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Innovation and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gregg C (2010) Eppendorf winner. Parental control over the brain. Science 330:770–771
A journal article with 2 authors
Restuccia DF, Hemmings BA (2009) Cell signaling. Blocking Akt-ivity. Science 325:1083–1084
A journal article with 3 authors
Caro E, Castellano MM, Gutierrez C (2007) A chromatin link that couples cell division to root epidermis patterning in Arabidopsis. Nature 447:213–217
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li W, Scott AP, Siefkes MJ, et al (2002) Bile Acid secreted by male sea lamprey that acts as a sex pheromone. Science 296:138–141

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Laheurte J-M, Ripoll C, Paret D, Loussert C (2014) UHF RFID Technologies for Identification and Traceability. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Cunha PF, Maropoulos PG (eds) (2007) Digital Enterprise Technology: Perspectives and Future Challenges. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Henein MY, Sheppard M, Pepper JR (2012) Valve Substitutes. In: Henein MY (ed) Clinical Echocardiography. Springer, London, pp 93–103

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Innovation and Education.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) European Commission Opposes Petition To End Animal Research. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) FAA’s Preboard Passenger Screening Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Milner M (2009) An evaluation of the influence of case method instruction on the reflective thinking of MSW students. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2013) Mormon-Backed Mall Breathes Life Into Salt Lake City. New York Times B6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gregg 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Restuccia and Hemmings 2009; Gregg 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Restuccia and Hemmings 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Innovation and Education
AbbreviationTechnol. Innov. Educ.
ISSN (online)2197-9855

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