How to format your references using the Technology, Innovation and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Innovation and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haynes CM (2015) Cell biology: Surviving import failure. Nature 524:419–420
A journal article with 2 authors
Katan MB, de Roos NM (2003) Public health. Toward evidence-based health claims for foods. Science 299:206–207
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt-Hieber C, Jonas P, Bischofberger J (2004) Enhanced synaptic plasticity in newly generated granule cells of the adult hippocampus. Nature 429:184–187
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ma T, Zhao M-J, Wang Y-K, Fei S-M (2014) Non-commutativity and local indistinguishability of quantum states. Sci Rep 4:6336

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gwynne P (2017) World Religions in Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Alvarez RH (2013) Handbook of HER2-targeted agents in breast cancer. Springer Healthcare Ltd., Tarporley
A chapter in an edited book
Altshuler Y, Yanovsky V, Wagner IA, Bruckstein AM (2006) Swarm Intelligence — Searchers, Cleaners and Hunters. In: Nedjah N, Mourelle L de M (eds) Swarm Intelligent Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 93–132

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Innovation and Education.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) How Did Jupiter And Saturn Form? The Answer May Lie With The Humble Pebble. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Airport Finance: Preliminary Analysis Indicates Proposed Changes in the Airport Improvement Program May Not Resolve Funding Needs for Smaller Airports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edmonds JL (2009) Mobility and population change in northeast Mississippi: An object-based seriation of projectile points as a relative paleodemographic indicator. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch J (2017) No White House Visit? Actually, No Invitation. New York Times B13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haynes 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Katan and de Roos 2003; Haynes 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Katan and de Roos 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Innovation and Education
AbbreviationTechnol. Innov. Educ.
ISSN (online)2197-9855

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