How to format your references using the Systems Biomedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Systems Biomedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reynolds CR. The evolution of sensibility. Nature 2005; 434:316–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson RF, Carr M-E. Paleoclimate. Uncorking the Southern Ocean’s vintage CO2. Science 2010; 328:1117–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Soung YH, Pruitt K, Chung J. Epigenetic silencing of ARRDC3 expression in basal-like breast cancer cells. Sci Rep 2014; 4:3846.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Moy CM, Seltzer GO, Rodbell DT, Anderson DM. Variability of El Niño/Southern Oscillation activity at millennial timescales during the Holocene epoch. Nature 2002; 420:162–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mitra A. Fundamentals of Quality Control and Improvement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Hoffmann F, Köppen M, Klawonn F, Roy R, editors. Soft Computing: Methodologies and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Angioni E, Cabiddu F. Corporate Customership: The Core Components of the Relationship Between Firm and Customer. In: Caporarello L, Di Martino B, Martinez M, editors. Smart Organizations and Smart Artifacts: Fostering Interaction Between People, Technologies and Processes. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. page 29–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Systems Biomedicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Amazing New Find Brings Us Closer To Cloning A Woolly Mammoth [Internet]. IFLScience2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telephone Communications: Bypass of the Local Telephone Companies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wicks CF. The Self-Concept of Students in Remediation in a Rural Community College in Mississippi. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rowan J. A Less Than Honorable Policy. New York Times2016; :A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSystems Biomedicine
AbbreviationSyst. Biomed. (Austin)
ISSN (print)2162-8130
ISSN (online)2162-8149

Other styles