How to format your references using the International Journal of Quality Innovation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Quality Innovation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
King DA (2004) The scientific impact of nations. Nature 430:311–316
A journal article with 2 authors
Schmidt V, Gösele U (2007) Materials science. How nanowires grow. Science 316:698–699
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiao S, Li R, Chen M (2013) Detecting sedimentary cycles using autocorrelation of grain size. Sci Rep 3:1653
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gupta R, Kim JY, Espinal MA, et al (2001) Public health. Responding to market failures in tuberculosis control. Science 293:1049–1051

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Putt A (2006) Putt’s Law & the Successful Technocrat. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Wanninger A (2015) Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates 2: Lophotrochozoa (Spiralia), 1st ed. 2015. Springer, Vienna
A chapter in an edited book
Edwards GE, Voznesenskaya EV (2011) Chapter 4 C4 Photosynthesis: Kranz Forms and Single-Cell C4 in Terrestrial Plants. In: Raghavendra AS, Sage RF (eds) C4 Photosynthesis and Related CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 29–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Quality Innovation.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Clue To Mysterious Lights That Appear Before Earthquakes. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Urban Transportation: Metropolitan Planning Organizations’ Efforts to Meet Federal Planning Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rivas VE (2014) Art appreciation program for homeless children: A grant proposal project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bernstein N (2016) Bodies Given to N.Y.U. Sent to Mass Graves. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Quality Innovation
AbbreviationInt. J. Qual. Innov.
ISSN (online)2363-7021

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