How to format your references using the Heart Failure Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart Failure Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
You Z (2014) Materials design. Folding structures out of flat materials. Science 345:623–624
A journal article with 2 authors
Karim SSA, Karim QA (2010) AIDS research must link to local policy. Nature 463:733–734
A journal article with 3 authors
Giulini A, Wang J, Jackson D (2004) Control of phyllotaxy by the cytokinin-inducible response regulator homologue ABPHYL1. Nature 430:1031–1034
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Park AW, Daly JM, Lewis NS, et al (2009) Quantifying the impact of immune escape on transmission dynamics of influenza. Science 326:726–728

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hansen S, Pedersen-Bjergaard S, Rasmussen K (2011) Introduction to Pharmaceutical Chemical Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Schneider-Sliwa R (2006) Cities in Transition: Globalization, Political Change and Urban Development. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Guccio C, Martorana MF, Mazza I, Rizzo I (2016) Technology and Public Access to Cultural Heritage: The Italian Experience on ICT for Public Historical Archives. In: Borowiecki KJ, Forbes N, Fresa A (eds) Cultural Heritage in a Changing World. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 55–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart Failure Reviews.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) Meet Motobot: Yamaha’s Motocycle-Riding Robot. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Need for Improved Controls for Identifying and Correcting Safety Defects on Light Aircraft. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schaper P (2010) Meaning making: Learning in whistle blowing. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2009) Russian Leaders Attend Installation of Orthodox Patriarch. New York Times A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart Failure Reviews
AbbreviationHeart Fail. Rev.
ISSN (print)1382-4147
ISSN (online)1573-7322
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles