How to format your references using the Heart Failure Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart Failure Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bosch X (2000) Anger as Spain boosts R&D figures with defence money. Nature 407:664
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller LH, Greenwood B (2002) Malaria--a shadow over Africa. Science 298:121–122
A journal article with 3 authors
Lambertucci SA, Shepard ELC, Wilson RP (2015) Ecology. Human-wildlife conflicts in a crowded airspace. Science 348:502–504
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Henry L-A, Vad J, Findlay HS, et al (2014) Environmental variability and biodiversity of megabenthos on the Hebrides Terrace Seamount (Northeast Atlantic). Sci Rep 4:5589

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Strome TL (2013) Healthcare Analytics for Quality and Performance Improvement. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Narhi LO (2013) Biophysics for Therapeutic Protein Development. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Ahonen P, Alahuhta P, Daskala B, et al (2010) Safeguards. In: Alahuhta P, Daskala B, Delaitre S, et al (eds) Safeguards in a World of Ambient Intelligence. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 179–251

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart Failure Reviews.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Night Owls Have A Higher Risk Of Developing Diabetes Than Early Birds. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak Needs to Improve Its Decisionmaking Process for Its Route and Service Proposals. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carley R (2013) Evaluation of the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and hurricanes on wildfires in southeast Louisiana. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017) Toys, Manolos and Tennis Champs. New York Times AR72

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart Failure Reviews
AbbreviationHeart Fail. Rev.
ISSN (print)1382-4147
ISSN (online)1573-7322
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles