How to format your references using the Clinical Nutrition ESPEN citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Russo E. The birth of biotechnology. Nature 2003;421:456–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Starr MB, Wang X. Fundamental analysis of piezocatalysis process on the surfaces of strained piezoelectric materials. Sci Rep 2013;3:2160.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Lee K, Zhang Y, Lee SE. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATM orthologue suppresses break-induced chromosome translocations. Nature 2008;454:543–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Roth GS, Mattison JA, Ottinger MA, Chachich ME, Lane MA, Ingram DK. Aging in rhesus monkeys: relevance to human health interventions. Science 2004;305:1423–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Myers FR. Get the Job You Want, Even When No One’s Hiring. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
[1]
Hamer C, editor. Creating Mobile Games: Using JavaTM ME Platform to Put the Fun into Your Mobile Device and Cell Phone. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Tatbul N, Ahmad Y, Çetintemel U, Hwang J-H, Xing Y, Zdonik S. Load Management and High Availability in the Borealis Distributed Stream Processing Engine. In: Nittel S, Labrinidis A, Stefanidis A, editors. GeoSensor Networks: Second International Conference, GSN 2006, Boston, MA, USA, October 1-3, 2006, Revised Selected and Invited Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008, p. 66–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nutrition ESPEN.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Young Galaxy Baffles Astronomers. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/space/hubble-telescope-spots-deceptively-young-galaxy/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Space Station: Cost Control Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Cagle West M. Effective software engineering leadership for development programs. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Feeney K. A Little Taste Of France. New York Times 2008:NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nutrition ESPEN
AbbreviationClin. Nutr. ESPEN
ISSN (print)2405-4577
Scope

Other styles