How to format your references using the Clinical Nutrition ESPEN citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balescu R. Obituary: Ilya Prigogine (1917-2003). Nature 2003;424:30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chinsamy A, Elzanowski A. Bone histology. Evolution of growth pattern in birds. Nature 2001;412:402–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gavazzi G, Bisio A, Pozzo T. Time perception of visual motion is tuned by the motor representation of human actions. Sci Rep 2013;3:1168.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ji D, Song H, Zeng X, Hu H, Liu K, Zhang N, et al. Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns. Sci Rep 2014;4:4498.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bock R. Handbuch der analytisch-chemischen Aufschlussmethoden. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Nishizaki S-Y, Numao M, Caro J, Suarez MT, editors. Theory and Practice of Computation: 2nd Workshop on Computation: Theory and Practice, Manila, The Philippines, September 2012, Proceedings. vol. 7. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Chebanov D. On the Problem of Similar Motions of a Chain of Coupled Heavy Rigid Bodies. In: Bélair J, Frigaard IA, Kunze H, Makarov R, Melnik R, Spiteri RJ, editors. Mathematical and Computational Approaches in Advancing Modern Science and Engineering, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 47–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nutrition ESPEN.

Blog post
Andrew E. NASA Observatory Captures Stunning Solar Flare. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Reservation Systems: Action Needed to Better Monitor the CRS Industry and Eliminate CRS Biases. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Raines JR. Exploring differences in teacher attitudes and instructional strategies between traditional and block schedule high schools: A comparison of two large schools. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grimes W. Eldar Ryazanov, 88, Dies; Famed Russian Director Was a Master of Satire. New York Times 2015:B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nutrition ESPEN
AbbreviationClin. Nutr. ESPEN
ISSN (print)2405-4577

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