How to format your references using the Clinical Nutrition ESPEN citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gee H. Progressive evolution: aspirational thinking. Nature 2002;420:611.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feng Y, Krumholz MR. Early turbulent mixing as the origin of chemical homogeneity in open star clusters. Nature 2014;513:523–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller-Butterworth CM, Jacobs DS, Harley EH. Strong population substructure is correlated with morphology and ecology in a migratory bat. Nature 2003;424:187–91.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yu H, Zhang H, Wang Y, Wang Z, Wang J, Petrov V. Generation of crystal-structure transverse patterns via a self-frequency-doubling laser. Sci Rep 2013;3:1085.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bma. Everyday Medical Ethics and Law. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Ahmad VU, Basha A, editors. Spectroscopic Data of Steroid Glycosides: Cholestanes, Ergostanes, Withanolides, Stigmastane: Volume 1. New York, NY: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Alberti SJMM. A Pathological Pot. In: Craciun A, Schaffer S, editors. The Material Cultures of Enlightenment Arts and Sciences, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016, p. 43–5.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nutrition ESPEN.

Blog post
Carpineti A. 3D Electron Discovery In High-Temperature Superconductor Could Lead To Breakthrough. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. USDA Restructuring: Refocus Info Share Program on Business Processes Rather Than Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kurtz WA. Under the Balaclava: A Case Study Examining Habits Within the Identity of Elite Counterterrorists. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky M. Does a Building’s Age Affect the Rent? New York Times 2017:RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nutrition ESPEN
AbbreviationClin. Nutr. ESPEN
ISSN (print)2405-4577

Other styles