How to format your references using the International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Arrigo, K. R. (2005). Marine microorganisms and global nutrient cycles. Nature, 437(7057), 349–355.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murray, J., & Segall, P. (2002). Testing time-predictable earthquake recurrence by direct measurement of strain accumulation and release. Nature, 419(6904), 287–291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Garrick-Bethell, I., Nimmo, F., & Wieczorek, M. A. (2010). Structure and formation of the lunar farside highlands. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6006), 949–951.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Roerink, S. F., Sasaki, N., Lee-Six, H., Young, M. D., Alexandrov, L. B., Behjati, S., … Clevers, H. (2018). Intra-tumour diversification in colorectal cancer at the single-cell level. Nature, 556(7702), 457–462.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kasper, S., & Montgomery, S. (2013). Treatment-resistant Depression. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Foresti, S., & Lopez, J. (Eds.). (2016). Information Security Theory and Practice: 10th IFIP WG 11.2 International Conference, WISTP 2016, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, September 26–27, 2016, Proceedings (Vol. 9895). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
David, M., Gollasch, S., Elliott, B., & Wiley, C. (2015). Ballast Water Management Under the Ballast Water Management Convention. In M. David & S. Gollasch (Eds.), Global Maritime Transport and Ballast Water Management: Issues and Solutions (pp. 89–108). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, May 18). Ancient Pottery Reveals Mysterious Invasion Of Prehistoric Britain. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Increased Compliance Needed With Nursing Home Health and Sanitary Standards (No. MWD-76-8). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Claar, P. L. (2017). A Correlational Study Comparing the Relationship between School Leader Intercultural Development, Selected Demographic Variables, and Student Achievement (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2003, March 16). Reclaiming a Shabby Block of Maritime History. New York Times, p. 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Arrigo, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Arrigo, 2005; Murray & Segall, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Murray & Segall, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Garrick-Bethell, Nimmo, & Wieczorek, 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Roerink et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Qual. Stud. Educ.
ISSN (print)0951-8398
ISSN (online)1366-5898

Other styles