How to format your references using the Business History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Business History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fletcher, J. D. “Education and Training Technology in the Military.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323, no. 5910 (January 2, 2009): 72–75.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marshall, Charles R., and David K. Jacobs. “Paleontology. Flourishing after the End-Permian Mass Extinction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325, no. 5944 (August 28, 2009): 1079–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eilken, Hanna M., Shin-Ichi Nishikawa, and Timm Schroeder. “Continuous Single-Cell Imaging of Blood Generation from Haemogenic Endothelium.” Nature 457, no. 7231 (February 12, 2009): 896–900.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhao, Min, Aiping Song, Peiling Li, Sumei Chen, Jiafu Jiang, and Fadi Chen. “A BHLH Transcription Factor Regulates Iron Intake under Fe Deficiency in Chrysanthemum.” Scientific Reports 4 (October 24, 2014): 6694.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Higman, B. W. How Food Made History. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011.
An edited book
Martens, Ewout S. J. High-Level Modeling and Synthesis of Analog Integrated Systems. Edited by Georges G. E. Gielen. Analog Circuits and Signal Processing Series. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramnath, Sarnath, and Brahma Dathan. “Elementary Design Patterns.” In Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, edited by Sarnath Ramnath and Brahma Dathan, 113–33. Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science. London: Springer, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Business History.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. “What Can Senior Citizen Slugs Teach Us About Age-Related Memory Loss?” IFLScience. IFLScience, August 4, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Getting the New Communities Program Started: Progress and Problems.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, November 15, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown, Laura Therese. “Identifying Potential Co-Repressors Associated with Dexamethasone-Induced Repression of the MUC5AC Gene.” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, Ben. “Iran and Saudis Trade Barbs With Pilgrimage Set to Start.” New York Times, September 7, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleBusiness History
AbbreviationBus. Hist.
ISSN (print)0007-6791
ISSN (online)1743-7938
Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
Business and International Management

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