How to format your references using the Business History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Business History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dye, James L. “Chemistry. Electrons as Anions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301, no. 5633 (August 1, 2003): 607–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blackburn, Elizabeth H., and Elissa S. Epel. “Telomeres and Adversity: Too Toxic to Ignore.” Nature 490, no. 7419 (October 11, 2012): 169–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barnett, T. P., J. C. Adam, and D. P. Lettenmaier. “Potential Impacts of a Warming Climate on Water Availability in Snow-Dominated Regions.” Nature 438, no. 7066 (November 17, 2005): 303–9.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Poggio, Tomaso, Ryan Rifkin, Sayan Mukherjee, and Partha Niyogi. “General Conditions for Predictivity in Learning Theory.” Nature 428, no. 6981 (March 25, 2004): 419–22.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindahl, David. Trump University Commercial Real Estate 101. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008.
An edited book
Perry, Bob, Amy MacDonald, and Ann Gervasoni, eds. Mathematics and Transition to School: International Perspectives. Early Mathematics Learning and Development. Singapore: Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Mosteller, Frederick. “The Safety of Anesthetics: The National Halothane Study.” In The Pleasures of Statistics: The Autobiography of Frederick Mosteller, edited by Stephen E. Fienberg, David C. Hoaglin, and Judith M. Tanur, 69–88. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Business History.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. “Daphnis Making Waves In Saturn’s Rings.” IFLScience. IFLScience, January 18, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Sanitary Conditions in Selected Food Industries.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, April 11, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailey, Kristin Michelle. “A Phenomenological Study of How Biblical Spiritual Disciplines Influence Women’s Character and Leadership Practices in Christian Faith-Based Institutions in Higher Education in North America.” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis, Anemona, and Kate Taylor. “After an Introduction by de Blasio, a Brooklyn Hospital Hired His Wife.” New York Times, October 10, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleBusiness History
AbbreviationBus. Hist.
ISSN (print)0007-6791
ISSN (online)1743-7938
Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
Business and International Management

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