How to format your references using the Business History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Business History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Farah, Martha J. “NEUROSCIENCE. The Unknowns of Cognitive Enhancement.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350, no. 6259 (October 23, 2015): 379–80.
A journal article with 2 authors
Audet, Pascal, and Roland Bürgmann. “Possible Control of Subduction Zone Slow-Earthquake Periodicity by Silica Enrichment.” Nature 510, no. 7505 (June 19, 2014): 389–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rompolas, Panteleimon, Kailin R. Mesa, and Valentina Greco. “Spatial Organization within a Niche as a Determinant of Stem-Cell Fate.” Nature 502, no. 7472 (October 24, 2013): 513–18.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lin, Shi-Hsin, M. V. Milošević, L. Covaci, B. Jankó, and F. M. Peeters. “Quantum Rotor in Nanostructured Superconductors.” Scientific Reports 4 (April 1, 2014): 4542.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rider, Michael J. Design and Analysis of Mechanisms. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
Ibrahimbegovic, Adnan, and Muhamed Zlatar, eds. Damage Assessment and Reconstruction after War or Natural Disaster. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Argyros, I. K., and Á. A. Magreñán. “Inexact Newton Methods on Riemannian Manifolds.” In Advances in Iterative Methods for Nonlinear Equations, edited by Sergio Amat and Sonia Busquier, 57–78. SEMA SIMAI Springer Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Business History.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. “Unusually Large Numbers Of Fur Seals Stranding On Californian Coast.” IFLScience. IFLScience, October 1, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Aviation Finance: Implementation of General Aviation Entitlement Grants.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 11, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spillman, Samantha A. “Is More Always Better: Comparing the Effects of Single and Multiple Learning Channels on Academic Performance.” Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. “Bowling With World’s Best, Then Rejoining 8th Grade.” New York Times, February 25, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleBusiness History
AbbreviationBus. Hist.
ISSN (print)0007-6791
ISSN (online)1743-7938
Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
Business and International Management

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