How to format your references using the BMC Geriatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Geriatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Tauxe W. Genome editing: 4 big questions. Nature. 2015;528:S17.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. D’Souza V, Summers MF. Structural basis for packaging the dimeric genome of Moloney murine leukaemia virus. Nature. 2004;431:586–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Logvenov G, Gozar A, Bozovic I. High-temperature superconductivity in a single copper-oxygen plane. Science. 2009;326:699–702.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gao SS, Silver PG, Linde AT, Sacks IS. Annual modulation of triggered seismicity following the 1992 Landers earthquake in California. Nature. 2000;406:500–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Morrison TJ. Functional Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2000.
An edited book
1. Ehnert I, Harry W, Zink KJ, editors. Sustainability and Human Resource Management: Developing Sustainable Business Organizations. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ekoff M, Nilsson G. Mast Cell Apoptosis and Survival. In: Gilfillan AM, Metcalfe DD, editors. Mast Cell Biology: Contemporary and Emerging Topics. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011. p. 47–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Geriatrics.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Mechanical Sea Snakes Could Be The Terrifying Future Of Underwater Exploration. IFLScience. 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Standard Budget Classifications--Proposed Functions and Subfunctions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Emenyonu NI. Barriers to HIV care in rural Uganda. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. For Rodriguez, It’s a No-Brainer: Just Play. New York Times. 2009;:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Geriatrics
AbbreviationBMC Geriatr.
ISSN (online)1471-2318
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology

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