How to format your references using the BMC Geriatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Geriatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ferguson SM. MEDICINE. Membrane traffic en route to cancer. Science. 2015;350:162–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Derry LA, Murray RW. Geochemistry. Continental margins and the sulfur cycle. Science. 2004;303:1981–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tassin P, Koschny T, Soukoulis CM. Applied physics. Graphene for terahertz applications. Science. 2013;341:620–1.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sordella R, Bell DW, Haber DA, Settleman J. Gefitinib-sensitizing EGFR mutations in lung cancer activate anti-apoptotic pathways. Science. 2004;305:1163–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chadwick P. Person-Based Cognitive Therapy for Distressing Psychosis. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. George L, Vardanega T, editors. Reliable Software Technologies – Ada-Europe 2014: 19th Ada-Europe International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, Paris, France, June 23-27, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Durand-Guerrier V, Kazima M, Libbrecht P, Ngansop JN, Salekhova L, Tuktamyshov N, et al. Challenges and Opportunities for Second Language Learners in Undergraduate Mathematics. In: Barwell R, Clarkson P, Halai A, Kazima M, Moschkovich J, Planas N, et al., editors. Mathematics Education and Language Diversity: The 21st ICMI Study. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 85–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Geriatrics.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Scientist Steps Closer To Understanding The Enigmatic Noises Of The Northern Lights. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/scientist-steps-closer-to-understanding-the-enigmatic-noises-of-the-northern-lights/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Research and Development: Funding of Jet Aircraft Engines for Fiscal Years 1984-1988. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Eaglin M. A secondary data analysis of Latino families who successfully terminated with family preservation. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schembari J. A Father, a Son and the Porsche They Went In On Together. New York Times. 2016;:B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Geriatrics
AbbreviationBMC Geriatr.
ISSN (online)1471-2318
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology

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