How to format your references using the BMC Geriatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Geriatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bunk S. Sandia scientists develop instruments at the crossroads. Nature. 2001;410:128–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Johnson DL, Johnson SAS. Cell biology. RNA metabolism and oncogenesis. Science. 2008;320:461–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wohlgemuth S, Ronacher B, Wehner R. Ant odometry in the third dimension. Nature. 2001;411:795–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kaya S, Schlesinger D, Yamamoto S, Newberg JT, Bluhm H, Ogasawara H, et al. Highly compressed two-dimensional form of water at ambient conditions. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1074.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kandel HG. Verfahrenstechnische Methoden in der Wirkstoffherstellung. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
1. Logothetidis S, editor. Nanostructured Materials and Their Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Clayton WS, Petri BG, Huling SG. Fundamentals of ISCO Using Ozone. In: Siegrist RL, Crimi M, Simpkin TJ, editors. In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 193–232.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Geriatrics.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Trilobites Migrated Across The Ocean Floor In Single File. IFLScience. 2016. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Time Issues Affecting the Global Positioning System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Xiong Y. Immuno-Magnetic T Cell Depletion for Allogeneic Hematological Stem Cell Transplantation. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hartocollis A. And Surrogacy Makes 3. New York Times. 2014;:E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Geriatrics
AbbreviationBMC Geriatr.
ISSN (online)1471-2318
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology

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