How to format your references using the International Journal of Play citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Play. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D. (2004). Power to the people. Nature, 430(7002), 928–929.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kale, M. J., & Christopher, P. (2015). PHYSICS. Plasmons at the interface. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6248), 587–588.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bishop, J. R., Schuksz, M., & Esko, J. D. (2007). Heparan sulphate proteoglycans fine-tune mammalian physiology. Nature, 446(7139), 1030–1037.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Park, J. M., Greten, F. R., Li, Z.-W., & Karin, M. (2002). Macrophage apoptosis by anthrax lethal factor through p38 MAP kinase inhibition. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5589), 2048–2051.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sheldrake, A. L. (2005). Handbook of Electrical Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Feldman, E. L. (2014). Atlas of Neuromuscular Diseases: A Practical Guideline (W. Grisold, J. W. Russell, & W. N. Löscher, Eds.; 2nd ed. 2014). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Y., Ferris, A., Lewis, B. C., Orsulic, S., Williams, B. O., Holland, E. C., & Hughes, S. H. (2012). The RCAS/TVA Somatic Gene Transfer Method in Modeling Human Cancer. In J. E. Green & T. Ried (Eds.), Genetically Engineered Mice for Cancer Research: design, analysis, pathways, validation and pre-clinical testing (pp. 83–111). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Play.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, March 13). The unprecedented chin size of an ancient porpoise. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). [Comments on Applicability of Vacancies Act to Various Labor and Education Officers] (B-220522.2). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gillaspy, K. M. (2012). Words of Samsara [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., & Schmitt, E. (2017, July 8). State Crumbling, ISIS Is Reclaiming Insurgent Roots. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Butler, 2004; Kale & Christopher, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kale & Christopher, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Bishop et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Park et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Play
AbbreviationInt. J. Play
ISSN (print)2159-4937
ISSN (online)2159-4953

Other styles