How to format your references using the Arabian Journal of Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arabian Journal of Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ijspeert AJ (2014) Biorobotics: using robots to emulate and investigate agile locomotion. Science 346:196–203
A journal article with 2 authors
Guzman J, Stern S (2015) Innovation economics. Where is Silicon Valley? Science 347:606–609
A journal article with 3 authors
Ito K, Uno M, Nakamura Y (2000) A tripeptide “anticodon” deciphers stop codons in messenger RNA. Nature 403:680–684
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liu G, Ye X, Miller EJ, Liu SF (2014) NF-κB-to-AP-1 switch: a mechanism regulating transition from endothelial barrier injury to repair in endotoxemic mice. Sci Rep 4:5543

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Medhurst D (2008) A Brief and Practical Guide to EU Law. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Azar AT, Vaidyanathan S (eds) (2016) Advances in Chaos Theory and Intelligent Control. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Das ML (2013) Strong Security and Privacy of RFID System for Internet of Things Infrastructure. In: Gierlichs B, Guilley S, Mukhopadhyay D (eds) Security, Privacy, and Applied Cryptography Engineering: Third International Conference, SPACE 2013, Kharagpur, India, October 19-23, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 56–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arabian Journal of Geosciences.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) Siberia’s “Doorway To The Underworld” Is Very Quickly Getting Bigger. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Information Technology: An Audit Guide For Assessing Acquisition Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tapal SS (2012) Is the fourth generation of Six Sigma an effective professional development model in K-12 education? Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Dewan S (2012) Governors’ Rulings Mean Lower Deductibles for Storm-Tossed Homeowners. New York Times B4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ijspeert 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ijspeert 2014; Guzman and Stern 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guzman and Stern 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleArabian Journal of Geosciences
AbbreviationArab. J. Geosci.
ISSN (print)1866-7511
ISSN (online)1866-7538
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

Other styles