How to format your references using the Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sawyer, R. J. (2000). “The abdication of Pope Mary III...or Galileo’s revenge.” Nature, 406(6791), 23.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shedlock, D. J., and Shen, H. (2003). “Requirement for CD4 T cell help in generating functional CD8 T cell memory.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5617), 337–339.
A journal article with 3 authors
Babbush, R., Love, P. J., and Aspuru-Guzik, A. (2014). “Adiabatic quantum simulation of quantum chemistry.” Scientific reports, 4, 6603.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xie, Y., Fan, X., Wilson, J. D., Simons, R. N., Chen, Y., and Xiao, J. Q. (2014). “A universal electromagnetic energy conversion adapter based on a metamaterial absorber.” Scientific reports, 4, 6301.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kracke, E.-A., and Lodde, K. (2011). Leitfaden Straßenbrücken. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Feldman, L. S., Delaney, C. P., Ljungqvist, O., and Carli, F. (Eds.). (2015). The SAGES / ERAS® Society Manual of Enhanced Recovery Programs for Gastrointestinal Surgery. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, W., Fu, B., Liu, X., and Jin, Y. (2015). “Numerical Calculation and Analysis of Influencing Factors on Waist Force of Armored Vehicle Driver.” Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Man–Machine–Environment System Engineering, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, S. Long and B. S. Dhillon, eds., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 39–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015). “Dawn Returns Striking New Images Of Dwarf Planet Ceres.” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). TANF and Child Welfare Programs: Increased Data Sharing Could Improve Access to Benefits and Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris, A. E. (2017). “A quantitative study of the impact of CFO and auditor turnover on internal control weaknesses.” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2015). “Living at Random.” New York Times, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sawyer 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Sawyer 2000; Shedlock and Shen 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shedlock and Shen 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Xie et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development
ISSN (online)2095-6215

Other styles