How to format your references using the Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watson, B. 2008. “Obituary: Bert Bolin (1925-2008).” Nature, 451 (7179): 642.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levnajić, Z., and A. Pikovsky. 2014. “Untangling complex dynamical systems via derivative-variable correlations.” Sci. Rep., 4: 5030.
A journal article with 3 authors
Biankin, A. V., S. Piantadosi, and S. J. Hollingsworth. 2015. “Patient-centric trials for therapeutic development in precision oncology.” Nature, 526 (7573): 361–370.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gill, J. L., J. W. Williams, S. T. Jackson, K. B. Lininger, and G. S. Robinson. 2009. “Pleistocene megafaunal collapse, novel plant communities, and enhanced fire regimes in North America.” Science, 326 (5956): 1100–1103.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simiu, E. 2011. Design of Buildings for Wind. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Heck, A. (Ed.). 2005. The Multinational History of Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory. Astrophysics and Space Science Library. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Niemczyk, S. P. 2016. “Nonsurgical Retreatment Utilizing Cone Beam Computed Tomography.” 3D Imaging in Endodontics: A New Era in Diagnosis and Treatment, M. Fayad and B. R. Johnson, eds., 75–112. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. “Watch These Trees Get Swallowed By An Underwater Sinkhole.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Business Modernization: Disciplined Processes Needed to Better Manage NASA’s Integrated Financial Management Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Finley, S. 2014. “How online communication and social media networking are used in alcohol use treatment.” Doctoral dissertation. Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. 1992. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: News Analysis; The Center of Attention.” New York Times, October 2, 1992.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watson 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Levnajić and Pikovsky 2014; Watson 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levnajić and Pikovsky 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Gill et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development
ISSN (online)2095-6215

Other styles