How to format your references using the Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2010). “World view: what can little Europe do?” Nature, 464(7287), 349.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rickman, C., and Bickmore, W. A. (2013). “Transcription. Flashing a light on the spatial organization of transcription.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6146), 621–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, H. K., Hanson, G. W., and Geller, D. A. (2013). “Chemistry. Are gold clusters in RF fields hot or not?” Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6131), 441–442.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Froehlich, A. C., Liu, Y., Loros, J. J., and Dunlap, J. C. (2002). “White Collar-1, a circadian blue light photoreceptor, binding to the frequency promoter.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5582), 815–819.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gasser, W., Heiner, E., and Elk, K. (2005). Greensche Funktionen in Festkörper- und Vielteilchenphysik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Hatakeyama, T. (2005). Thermal Properties of Green Polymers and Biocomposites. Hot Topics in Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, (H. Hatakeyama, ed.), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Izmailov, I., Poizner, B., Romanov, I., and Smolskiy, S. (2016). “Single- and Double-Circuit Nonlinear Ring InterferometerInterferometer – Double-Circuit Nonlinear Ring Interferometer (Dnri) as a CiphererCipherer in Optical SystemsCipherer – Cipherer in Optical Systems of Synchronous Chaotic Communications.” Cryptology Transmitted Message Protection: From Deterministic Chaos up to Optical Vortices, Signals and Communication Technology, B. Poizner, I. Romanov, and S. Smolskiy, eds., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 215–257.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). “Just One Teaspoon Of This Legal Drug Could Kill You.” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Overhead Costs: Unallowable Costs Charged by Rockwell Corporation, Rocketdyne Division. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Steinberg, J. (2015). “The Social Construction of Beauty: Body Modification Examined Through the Lens of Social Learning Theory.” Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2016). “Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman.” New York Times, MM38.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2010; Rickman and Bickmore 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rickman and Bickmore 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Froehlich et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development
ISSN (online)2095-6215

Other styles