How to format your references using the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Schönenberger, Physics. Two indistinguishable electrons interfere in an electronic device, Science. 339 (2013) 1041–1042.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.K. Costello, D.A. Relman, Population health: immaturity in the gut microbial community, Nature. 510 (2014) 344–345.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.F. Kasting, D.C. Catling, K. Zahnle, Atmospheric oxygenation and volcanism, Nature. 487 (2012) E1; discussion E2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. Metzger, M. Wissmann, N. Yin, J.M. Müller, R. Schneider, A.H.F.M. Peters, T. Günther, R. Buettner, R. Schüle, LSD1 demethylates repressive histone marks to promote androgen-receptor-dependent transcription, Nature. 437 (2005) 436–439.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Darbyshire, D. Hampton, Hedge Fund Modelling and Analysis Using Excel and VBA, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 2012.
An edited book
J. Mamou, M.L. Oelze, eds., Quantitative Ultrasound in Soft Tissues, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
H.-J. Steiger, N. Etminan, D. Hänggi, Dissection of the Aneurysm and Principles of Clipping, in: N. Etminan, D. Hänggi (Eds.), Microsurgical Brain Aneurysms: Illustrated Concepts and Cases, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 57–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Case Reports.

Blog post
J. Fang, Earliest Evidence of Limb Regeneration Found in 300-Million-Year-Old Fossils, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Army Logistics: Better Approach Needed to Identify Systemic Causes of Problem Parts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.L. Walsh, Advancing Electroanalytical Methods for Monitoring Chemical Messenger Release, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Apuzzo, S. Fink, J. Risen, U.S. Torture Leaves a Legacy of Detainees With Damaged Minds, New York Times. (2016) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Case Reports
ISSN (print)2588-9109

Other styles