How to format your references using the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Livio, Lost in translation: Mystery of the missing text solved, Nature. 479 (2011) 171–173.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.A. Burns, J.N. Cuzzi, Planetary science. Our local astrophysical laboratory, Science. 312 (2006) 1753–1755.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Keimer, E. Sackmann, P.J. Withers, Neutron scattering. The case for neutron sources, Science. 298 (2002) 543.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Wang, J.I. Hamilton, M.S. Carter, S. Li, M.F. Wilkinson, Alternatively spliced TCR mRNA induced by disruption of reading frame, Science. 297 (2002) 108–110.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.A. Armstrong, A.C. Hilton, Statistical Analysis in Microbiology: Statnotes, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
C.C. Cartwright, D.C. Wallace, eds., Nursing Care of the Pediatric Neurosurgery Patient, 2nd ed. 2013, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Zhang, T. Yang, P. Shi, Y. Zhu, Time-Delay Systems Case, in: T. Yang, P. Shi, Y. Zhu (Eds.), Analysis and Design of Markov Jump Systems with Complex Transition Probabilities, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Case Reports.

Blog post
S. Luntz, How To Sex A Dinosaur, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Status of Office of Education’s National Direct Student Loan Funds at Selected Postsecondary Education Institutions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Freeman, The Loudest Room, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Lavin, I Sang in New York, New York Times. (2017) AR5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Case Reports
ISSN (print)2588-9109

Other styles