How to format your references using the Leprosy Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leprosy Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore P. PCR: replicating success. Nature. 2005 May 12;435(7039):235–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Inoue J, Ohno H. Physics. Taking the hall effect for a spin. Science. 2005 Sep 23;309(5743):2004–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scott BA, Avidan MS, Crowder CM. Regulation of hypoxic death in C. elegans by the insulin/IGF receptor homolog DAF-2. Science. 2002 Jun 28;296(5577):2388–91.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Siegert MJ, Welch B, Morse D, Vieli A, Blankenship DD, Joughin I, et al. Ice flow direction change in interior West Antarctica. Science. 2004 Sep 24;305(5692):1948–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Polushkin V. Nuclear Electronics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Johnson R. Nonautonomous Linear Hamiltonian Systems: Oscillation, Spectral Theory and Control. 1st ed. 2016. Obaya R, Novo S, Núñez C, Fabbri R, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XXI, 497 p. (Developments in Mathematics; vol. 36).
A chapter in an edited book
Marien H, Steyaert M, Heremans P. Sensors. In: Steyaert M, Heremans P, editors. Analog Organic Electronics: Building Blocks for Organic Smart Sensor Systems on Foil. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 111–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leprosy Review.

Blog post
Andrew E. Asteroid 2013 TV135: It’s Not Armageddon [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:’s-not-armageddon/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Puerto Rico: Characteristics of the Island’s Maritime Trade and Potential Effects of Modifying the Jones Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Mar. Report No.: GAO-13-260.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liu Y. Analysis on the distinct path in a star interconnection network [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Deloureiro L, Burke B, Bretherton G, Stuart C. Harvard Man May Be Winner On Winless Bills. New York Times. 2010 Oct 27;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLeprosy Review
AbbreviationLepr. Rev.
ISSN (print)0305-7518
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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