How to format your references using the Leprosy Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leprosy Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage N. Fuel options: The ideal biofuel. Nature. 2011 Jun 22;474(7352):S9-11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Korber B, Gnanakaran S. AIDS/HIV. Converging on an HIV vaccine. Science. 2011 Sep 16;333(6049):1589–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bradshaw D, Warren JE, Rosseinsky MJ. Reversible concerted ligand substitution at alternating metal sites in an extended solid. Science. 2007 Feb 16;315(5814):977–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou Z, Kong B, Yu C, Shi X, Wang M, Liu W, et al. Tungsten oxide nanorods: an efficient nanoplatform for tumor CT imaging and photothermal therapy. Sci Rep. 2014 Jan 13;4:3653.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ytterdal T, Cheng Y, Fjeldly TA. Device Modeling for Analog and RF CMOS Circuit Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2003.
An edited book
Schramm J, editor. Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery: Volume 41. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. VI, 178 p. 40 illus., 14 illus. in color. (Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery; vol. 41).
A chapter in an edited book
Matthews JB. Leadership Traits: Are People Born to Lead? In: Kibbe MR, Chen H, editors. Leadership in Surgery. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 59–66. (Success in Academic Surgery).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leprosy Review.

Blog post
Hale T. You Can Finally See The World’s Finest Uncut Opal [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer-Based Patient Records: Subcommittee Questions Concerning VA and DOD Efforts to Achieve a Two-Way Exchange of Health Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 May. Report No.: GAO-04-691R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramos CM. Is this working? A study on measuring the effectiveness of efforts to diversify the theatre management field [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feinblatt J. Ban the Open Carry of Firearms. New York Times. 2017 Aug 17;A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLeprosy Review
AbbreviationLepr. Rev.
ISSN (print)0305-7518
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles