How to format your references using the Leprosy Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leprosy Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Lynch M. Genomics. Gene duplication and evolution. Science. 2002 Aug 9;297(5583):945–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Pinaud F, Dahan M. Biochemistry. Zooming into live cells. Science. 2008 Apr 11;320(5873):187–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Bouchard MJ, Wang LH, Schneider RJ. Calcium signaling by HBx protein in hepatitis B virus DNA replication. Science. 2001 Dec 14;294(5550):2376–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Mattapallil JJ, Douek DC, Hill B, Nishimura Y, Martin M, Roederer M. Massive infection and loss of memory CD4+ T cells in multiple tissues during acute SIV infection. Nature. 2005 Apr 28;434(7037):1093–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Cheremisinoff NP. Industrial Gas Flaring Practices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1.
Kuenzer C, Dech S, editors. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing: Sensors, Methods, Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. XVIII, 537 p. 235 illus., 162 illus. in color. (Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing; vol. 17).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Thiagalingam S, Faller DV. The Cancer Epigenome. In: Kaufman HL, Wadler S, Antman K, editors. Molecular Targeting in Oncology. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008. p. 97–113. (Cancer Drug Discovery and Development).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leprosy Review.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Drug Could Rejuvenate Aging Brain And Muscle Tissue [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/drug-could-rejuvenate-aging-brain-and-muscle-tissue/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. School Nutrition: USDA Has Efforts Underway to Help Address Ongoing Challenges Implementing Changes in Nutrition Standards. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Sep. Report No.: GAO-15-656.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Denney VP. Achieving a Competitive Advantage through Ethical Business Practices: An Ethnographical Case Study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Cooper H, Shear MD, Searcey D. Travel Ban on Chad Could Harm American Interests, Officials Say. New York Times. 2017 Sep 26;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLeprosy Review
AbbreviationLepr. Rev.
ISSN (print)0305-7518
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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