How to format your references using the Leprosy Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leprosy Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bennett CL. Astrophysical observations: lensing and eclipsing Einstein’s theories. Science. 2005 Feb 11;307(5711):879–84.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Rauch EM, Bar-Yam Y. Theory predicts the uneven distribution of genetic diversity within species. Nature. 2004 Sep 23;431(7007):449–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Truog RD, Kesselheim AS, Joffe S. Research ethics. Paying patients for their tissue: the legacy of Henrietta Lacks. Science. 2012 Jul 6;337(6090):37–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Ciccone DN, Su H, Hevi S, Gay F, Lei H, Bajko J, et al. KDM1B is a histone H3K4 demethylase required to establish maternal genomic imprints. Nature. 2009 Sep 17;461(7262):415–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Minuth WW, Strehl R, Schumacher K. Tissue Engineering. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Askoxylakis I, Pöhls HC, Posegga J, editors. Information Security Theory and Practice. Security, Privacy and Trust in Computing Systems and Ambient Intelligent Ecosystems: 6th IFIP WG 11.2 International Workshop, WISTP 2012, Egham, UK, June 20-22, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XII, 225 p. 42 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 7322).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Lisahunter, Emerald E, Martin G. Where Do You Stand: Philosophical Orientations. In: Emerald E, Martin G, editors. Participatory Activist Research in the Globalised World: Social Change Through the Cultural Professions. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 45–58. (Explorations of Educational Purpose).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leprosy Review.

Blog post
1.
O`Callaghan J. The Speed Of Light May Not Be As Constant As We Thought It Was. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Homeland Security: Despite Progress, DHS Continues to Be Challenged in Managing Its Multi-Billion Dollar Annual Investment in Large-Scale Information Technology Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Sep. Report No.: GAO-09-1002T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Giuseffi FG. Investigation of the Influence of the Socratic Method on Leadership Skills among JROTC Cadet Leaders at a Military Boarding School [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Solomon BC. In Grim Camps, Desperate Scene for Rohingya. New York Times. 2017 Sep 29;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLeprosy Review
AbbreviationLepr. Rev.
ISSN (print)0305-7518
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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