How to format your references using the International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sibley CH. Infectious diseases. Understanding artemisinin resistance. Science 2015;347:373–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yosef I, Qimron U. Microbiology: How bacteria get spacers from invaders. Nature 2015;519:166–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rey PF, Coltice N, Flament N. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics. Nature 2014;513:405–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yang Y, Wang H, Gao M, Xu S, Xu X, Cao X, et al. Pre-pregnancy cytogenetic analysis of general couples in eastern China. Sci Rep 2014;4:7224.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gasser W, Heiner E, Elk K. Greensche Funktionen in Festkörper- und Vielteilchenphysik. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Esteban M, Akiyama T, Chen C, Ikeda I, Mino T, editors. Sustainability Science: Field Methods and Exercises. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Honna N, Takeshita Y. English as an International Language and Three Challenging Issues in English Language Teaching in Japan. In: Marlina R, Giri RA, editors. The Pedagogy of English as an International Language: Perspectives from Scholars, Teachers, and Students, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 65–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Multi-Cellular Life May Have Begun One Billion Years Earlier Than We Thought. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Customs Service Modernization: Management Improvements Needed on High-Risk Automated Commercial Environment Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Contreras AG. A reproductive health program for the Latino adolescent community: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Romero S, Bosman J. As Waters Took Mother, a Child Held on to Life. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Osteopathic Medicine
AbbreviationInt. J. Osteopath. Med.
ISSN (print)1746-0689
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine

Other styles