How to format your references using the International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Check E. BSE in human tissues fires debate on patient disclosure. Nature 2002;419:326.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Ernst MO, Banks MS. Humans integrate visual and haptic information in a statistically optimal fashion. Nature 2002;415:429–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Herne MC, Nair JP, Salisbury SW. Comment on “A southern tyrant reptile.” Science 2010;329:1013; author reply 1013.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
McKinney JD, Höner zu Bentrup K, Muñoz-Elías EJ, Miczak A, Chen B, Chan WT, et al. Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages and mice requires the glyoxylate shunt enzyme isocitrate lyase. Nature 2000;406:735–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Evans AW. Economics, Real Estate and the Supply of Land. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
[1]
Lo J-J, Leatham KR, Van Zoest LR, editors. Research Trends in Mathematics Teacher Education. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Bagarello F. Physical Applications of Algebras of Unbounded Operators. In: Ali ST, Sinha KB, editors. Contributions in Mathematical Physics: A Tribute to Gerard G. Emch, Gurgaon: Hindustan Book Agency; 2007, p. 93–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Time-lapse images of the Earth as seen from the ISS. IFLScience 2013. https://www.iflscience.com/space/time-lapse-images-earth-seen-iss/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Distance Education: Improved Data on Program Costs and Guidelines on Quality Assessments Needed to Inform Federal Policy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Sydow K. A life review and Memory Album program to enhance family communication in assisted living. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Kishkovsky S. Russia: Jehovah’s Witness Acquitted of Incitement. New York Times 2011:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Osteopathic Medicine
AbbreviationInt. J. Osteopath. Med.
ISSN (print)1746-0689
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine

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