How to format your references using the International Journal of Oral Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Oral Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Moazed D. Small RNAs in transcriptional gene silencing and genome defence. Nature 2009; 457: 413–420.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Coulson T, Clegg S. Population biology: fur seals signal their own decline. Nature 2014; 511: 414–415.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Schön JH, Kloc C, Batlogg B. Superconductivity at 52 K in hole-doped C60. Nature 2000; 408: 549–552.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Socoliuc A, Gnecco E, Maier S et al. Atomic-scale control of friction by actuation of nanometer-sized contacts. Science 2006; 313: 207–210.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Overhauser A. Anomalous Effects in Simple Metals. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
1. Koch H. Dispersive Equations and Nonlinear Waves: Generalized Korteweg–de Vries, Nonlinear Schrödinger, Wave and Schrödinger Maps. (Tataru D, Vişan M, eds.). Basel: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Pozzi M, Zhu M. Plucked Piezoelectric Bimorphs for Energy Harvesting. In: Elvin N, Erturk A, eds. Advances in Energy Harvesting Methods. New York, NY: Springer, 2013, pp.119–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Oral Science.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. NASA Think They Found Enormous Volcanoes On Pluto’s Surface That Spew ICE Instead Of Lava And Ash. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement: Approach to Sharing Risk Under Certain Research and Development Contracts Is Starting to Change. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chotkevys DL. A grounded theory study to explore how nurses overcome barriers to spiritual care. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Somaiya R, Schaap R, Mueller A et al. Why Are They Always Apologizing? New York Times. March 1, 2012:MM34.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Oral Science
AbbreviationInt. J. Oral Sci.
ISSN (print)1674-2818
ISSN (online)2049-3169
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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