How to format your references using the International Journal of Oral Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Oral Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Roberts D. Adrienne Asch (1946-2013). Nature 2013; 504: 377.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Turner SL, Ray A. Modification of CO2 avoidance behaviour in Drosophila by inhibitory odorants. Nature 2009; 461: 277–281.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Knapp S, Polaszek A, Watson M. Spreading the word. Nature 2007; 446: 261–262.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Saeij JPJ, Coller S, Boyle JP et al. Toxoplasma co-opts host gene expression by injection of a polymorphic kinase homologue. Nature 2007; 445: 324–327.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Edmonds ME, Foster AVM, Sanders LJ. A Practical Manual of Diabetic Foot Care. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing; 2008.
An edited book
1. Pulendran B, Katsikis PD, Schoenberger SP eds. Crossroads between Innate and Adaptive Immunity III. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kuroda M, Moon FC. Local Complexity and Global Nonlinear Modes in Large Arrays of Elastic Rods in an Air Cross-Flow. In: Minai AA, Bar-Yam Y, eds. Unifying Themes in Complex Systems IV: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008, pp.39–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Oral Science.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Young Stars In Old Clusters Challenge One Of Astronomy’s Certainties. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Cyberfile Project Was Poorly Planned and Managed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hernandez K. Life skills education for at-risk youth at Soledad Enrichment Action Charter High School: A grant proposal. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Paulson M, Gelles D. Where’s My Wonka Bar? New York Times. July 3, 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Oral Science
AbbreviationInt. J. Oral Sci.
ISSN (print)1674-2818
ISSN (online)2049-3169
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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