How to format your references using the International Journal of Oral Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Oral Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Willyard C. Stem cells: bad seeds. Nature 2013; 498: S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lincoln TA, Joyce GF. Self-sustained replication of an RNA enzyme. Science 2009; 323: 1229–1232.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lowman M, D’Avanzo C, Brewer C. Ecology. A national ecological network for research and education. Science 2009; 323: 1172–1173.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Stengel KF, Holdermann I, Cain P et al. Structural basis for specific substrate recognition by the chloroplast signal recognition particle protein cpSRP43. Science 2008; 321: 253–256.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Denham BE. Categorical Statistics for Communication Research. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Hwang S-N, Lee H-S, Zhu J eds. Handbook of Operations Analytics Using Data Envelopment Analysis. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Agmon T, Sjögre S. Government Intervention to Promote Radical Ideas and VC Funds as a Functional Form to Facilitate Their Financing. In: Sjögren S, ed. Venture Capital and the Inventive Process: VC Funds for Ideas-Led Growth. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016, pp.49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Oral Science.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Explainer: What Is A Superconductor? IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Progress Made, but Federal Aviation Administration Needs to Improve Controls over Air Traffic Control Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kamis RP. The Relationship between Expanded Concepts of Self and Well-Being. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Nir SM. A Gasoline Desert Expands on an Island of Many Cars. New York Times. April 16, 2016:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Oral Science
AbbreviationInt. J. Oral Sci.
ISSN (print)1674-2818
ISSN (online)2049-3169
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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