How to format your references using the International Journal of Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kim J-V: Solid-state physics: siphoning spins. Nature 511: 418–419, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Federman SR and Young ED: Comment on “Experimental test of self-shielding in vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of CO.” Science 324: 1516; author reply 1516, 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sneddon JB, Borowiak M and Melton DA: Self-renewal of embryonic-stem-cell-derived progenitors by organ-matched mesenchyme. Nature 491: 765–768, 2012.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ogden SK, Fei DL, Schilling NS, Ahmed YF, Hwa J and Robbins DJ: G protein Galphai functions immediately downstream of Smoothened in Hedgehog signalling. Nature 456: 967–970, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ryan F: Cognitive Therapy for Addiction. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK, 2013.
An edited book
Tsukahara H and Kaneko K: Studies on Pediatric Disorders. Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Sugawara D and Takahashi T: Numerical Simulation of Coastal Sediment Transport by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake Tsunami. In: Tsunami Events and Lessons Learned: Environmental and Societal Significance. Kontar YA, Santiago-Fandiño V and Takahashi T (eds.) Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp99–112, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Oncology.

Blog post
Luntz S: Monkeys Are Aware Of The Unreliability Of Their Memories. IFLScience, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cagle West M: Effective software engineering leadership for development programs., 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski S: Where Charter Schools Outperform. New York Times: BU6, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Oncology
AbbreviationInt. J. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1019-6439
ISSN (online)1791-2423
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles