How to format your references using the Conservation Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Conservation Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
King G. 2011. Ensuring the data-rich future of the social sciences. Science (New York, N.Y.) 331:719–721.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ferdinand NK, Opitz B. 2014. Different aspects of performance feedback engage different brain areas: disentangling valence and expectancy in feedback processing. Scientific reports 4:5986.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jansen VAA, Mashanova A, Petrovskii S. 2012. Comment on “Lévy walks evolve through interaction between movement and environmental complexity.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335:918; author reply 918.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Herbert TD, Schuffert JD, Andreasen D, Heusser L, Lyle M, Mix A, Ravelo AC, Stott LD, Herguera JC. 2001. Collapse of the California Current during glacial maxima linked to climate change on land. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293:71–76.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Huddleston R. 2010. Android® Fully Loaded. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Colace F, De Santo M, Moscato V, Picariello A, Schreiber FA, Tanca L, editors. 2015. Data Management in Pervasive Systems1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Daugstad K. 2011. The Participatory Dimension in Nature Conservation Processes: Examples of Ideology and Practice from Norway. Pages 67–79 in M. Jones and M. Stenseke, editors. The European Landscape Convention: Challenges of Participation. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Conservation Biology.

Blog post
Taub B. 2016, August 1. Quitting Smoking Reverses Dopamine Deficits In The Brain. IFLScience. Available from (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. The Management and Operation of the Runaway Youth Program Administered by the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 105325. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bunt E. 2010. The saxophone works of Karlheinz Stockhausen. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Nixon R. 2017, September 22. Ban on Travel Will Be Replaced With New Schedule of Targeted Restrictions. New York Times:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (King 2011).
This sentence cites two references (King 2011; Ferdinand & Opitz 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ferdinand & Opitz 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Herbert et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleConservation Biology
AbbreviationConserv. Biol.
ISSN (print)0888-8892
ISSN (online)1523-1739
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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