How to format your references using the Conservation Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Conservation Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wildfeuer C. 2010. Physics. Managing multistate quantum entanglement. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328:835–836.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rieux-Laucat F, Casanova J-L. 2014. Immunology. Autoimmunity by haploinsufficiency. Science (New York, N.Y.) 345:1560–1561.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tewksbury JJ, Huey RB, Deutsch CA. 2008. Ecology. Putting the heat on tropical animals. Science (New York, N.Y.) 320:1296–1297.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tsukuda T, Fleming AB, Nickoloff JA, Osley MA. 2005. Chromatin remodelling at a DNA double-strand break site in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature 438:379–383.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bintliff J. 2012. The Complete Archaeology of Greece. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Boutaba R, Almeroth K, Puigjaner R, Shen S, Black JP, editors. 2005. NETWORKING 2005. Networking Technologies, Services, and Protocols; Performance of Computer and Communication Networks; Mobile and Wireless Communications Systems: 4th International IFIP-TC6 Networking Conference, Waterloo, Canada, May 2-6, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Gunn C. 2015. Online Assessment and Learner Motivation in the Twenty-First Century. Pages 53–62 in C. Koh, editor. Motivation, Leadership and Curriculum design: Engaging the Net Generation and 21st Century Learners. Springer, Singapore.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Conservation Biology.

Blog post
Hale T. 2015, October 22. Meet The Most Complete Juvenile T. Rex Ever Discovered. IFLScience. Available from (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Federal Research: Interim Report on the Small Business Innovation Research Program. T-RCED-95-154. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ackerina J. 2012. The call of public service: Motivation and professional commitment in education. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. 2007, October 10. Skeptically, Court Hears Fraud Case. New York Times:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wildfeuer 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Wildfeuer 2010; Rieux-Laucat & Casanova 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rieux-Laucat & Casanova 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Tsukuda et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleConservation Biology
AbbreviationConserv. Biol.
ISSN (print)0888-8892
ISSN (online)1523-1739
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles