How to format your references using the Conservation Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Conservation Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MacWilliams B. 2003. Russia pulls out of Antarctic station. Nature 422:104.
A journal article with 2 authors
Supek F, Lehner B. 2015. Differential DNA mismatch repair underlies mutation rate variation across the human genome. Nature 521:81–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bigelow MS, Lepeshkin NN, Boyd RW. 2003. Superluminal and slow light propagation in a room-temperature solid. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301:200–202.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nonaka S, Shiratori H, Saijoh Y, Hamada H. 2002. Determination of left-right patterning of the mouse embryo by artificial nodal flow. Nature 418:96–99.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zadora G, Martyna A, Ramos D, Aitken C. 2013. Statistical Analysis in Forensic Science. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Benediktovich A. 2014. Theoretical Concepts of X-Ray Nanoscale Analysis: Theory and Applications. Page (Feranchuk I, Ulyanenkov A, editors). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Modrow S, Falke D, Truyen U, Schätzl H. 2013. Pathogenesis. Pages 39–47 in D. Falke, U. Truyen, and H. Schätzl, editors. Molecular Virology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Conservation Biology.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016, April 29. Earth Doesn’t Get Weirder Than The Bubbling Springs Of Ethiopia. IFLScience. Available from (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Aviation Security: Efforts to Strengthen International Passenger Prescreening are Under Way, but Planning and Implementation Issues Remain. GAO-07-346. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoang V. 2009. Software maintenance: A program slicer using cross referencer. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. 2017, June 13. DeGrom Bounces Back in Style, but Cespedes Exits With Soreness. New York Times:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (MacWilliams 2003).
This sentence cites two references (MacWilliams 2003; Supek & Lehner 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Supek & Lehner 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Nonaka et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleConservation Biology
AbbreviationConserv. Biol.
ISSN (print)0888-8892
ISSN (online)1523-1739
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles