How to format your references using the Conservation Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Conservation Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Brien JL. 2007. Optical quantum computing. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318:1567–1570.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams BG, Dye C. 2003. Antiretroviral drugs for tuberculosis control in the era of HIV/AIDS. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301:1535–1537.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen L-Y, Redon S, Lingner J. 2012. The human CST complex is a terminator of telomerase activity. Nature 488:540–544.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Banal JL, White JM, Ghiggino KP, Wong WWH. 2014. Concentrating aggregation-induced fluorescence in planar waveguides: a proof-of-principle. Scientific reports 4:4635.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benatar D. 2012. The Second Sexism. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Hamilton ML. 2009. Self-study of Practice as a Genre of Qualitative Research: Theory, Methodology, and Practice. Page (Pinnegar S, editor). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Torvik VI, Triantaphyllou E. 2006. Discovering Rules That Govern Monotone Phenomena. Pages 149–192 in E. Triantaphyllou and G. Felici, editors. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Approaches Based on Rule Induction Techniques. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Conservation Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015, September 16. There’s A Global Ocean Beneath The Surface Of Enceladus. IFLScience. Available from (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities Still Exist in the Aviation Security System. T-RCED/AIMD-00-142. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newberry GC. 2014. Students’ experiences with simulation education. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Blinder A. 2016, November 22. Dead Children, a Crumpled Bus and a Dazed City. New York Times:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Brien 2007).
This sentence cites two references (O’Brien 2007, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Williams & Dye 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Banal et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleConservation Biology
AbbreviationConserv. Biol.
ISSN (print)0888-8892
ISSN (online)1523-1739
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles