How to format your references using the International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia (IJOA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Southwood D. Research collaboration: When international partnerships go wrong. Nature 2012;488(7412):451–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Libby E, Ratcliff WC. Evolution. Ratcheting the evolution of multicellularity. Science 2014;346(6208):426–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park HH, Woo K, Ahn J-P. Core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles robustly fixed on the outermost surface of magnetic silica microspheres. Sci Rep 2013;3:1497.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Arnold PL, Patel D, Wilson C, Love JB. Reduction and selective oxo group silylation of the uranyl dication. Nature 2008;451(7176):315–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Imrie R, Street E. Architectural Design and Regulation. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; 2011.
An edited book
Mukhopadhyay SC, Huang RYM, editors. Sensors: Advancements in Modeling, Design Issues, Fabrication and Practical Applications. vol. 21. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Kwiecien GJ. Fallopian Tube Anastomosis. in: Siemionow MZ, editor. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: Experimental Models and Research Designs. London: Springer; 2015. pp. 39–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia.

Blog post
Fang J. Teenager Develops Test That Can Diagnose Alzheimer’s Before Symptoms. IFLScience. [accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Research Supports Limited Use of Personal Computer Aviation Training Devices for Pilots. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murray TM. A grounded theory of U.S. Army installation realignment and closure leadership characteristics. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. AMC and Comcast to Offer A Commercial-Free Option. New York Times 2017:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
AbbreviationInt. J. Obstet. Anesth.
ISSN (print)0959-289X
ISSN (online)1532-3374
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Other styles