How to format your references using the International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia (IJOA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz D. Sometimes science must give way to religion. Nature 2012;488(7412):431.
A journal article with 2 authors
Durst AC, Girvin SM. Physics. Cooking a two-dimensional electron gas with microwaves. Science 2004;304(5678):1752–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cramer P, Bushnell DA, Kornberg RD. Structural basis of transcription: RNA polymerase II at 2.8 angstrom resolution. Science 2001;292(5523):1863–76.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Callegari A, Theulé P, Muenter JS, et al. Dipole moments of highly vibrationally excited water. Science 2002;297(5583):993–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grant G. The Water Sensitive City. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Noguet D, Moessner K, Palicot J, editors. Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks: 11th International Conference, CROWNCOM 2016, Grenoble, France, May 30 - June 1, 2016, Proceedings. vol. 172. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Blasch E, Chen Y, Chen G, Shen D, Kohler R. Information Fusion in a Cloud-Enabled Environment. in: Han KJ, Choi B-Y, Song S, editors. High Performance Cloud Auditing and Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. pp. 91–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia.

Blog post
Andrew E. Deep Sea Explorers Stumble Upon A Creature They Can Hardly Believe Is Real. IFLScience. [accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Education Allowance Grants Made to Trust Territory Government Employees. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1969.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murdock JM. Lethe and the Twin Bodhisattvas of Forgiveness and Forgetfulness. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. A Cutting-Edge Impresario’s Legacy. New York Times 2017:C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
AbbreviationInt. J. Obstet. Anesth.
ISSN (print)0959-289X
ISSN (online)1532-3374
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Other styles