How to format your references using the Cliometrica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cliometrica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willoughby HE (2007) Atmosphere. Forecasting hurricane intensity and impacts. Science 315:1232–1233
A journal article with 2 authors
Aragão LEOC, Shimabukuro YE (2010) The incidence of fire in Amazonian forests with implications for REDD. Science 328:1275–1278
A journal article with 3 authors
Tamisiea ME, Mitrovica JX, Davis JL (2007) GRACE gravity data constrain ancient ice geometries and continental dynamics over Laurentia. Science 316:881–883
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li J-M, Jin Z-X, Hagedorn F, Li M-H (2014) Short-term parasite-infection alters already the biomass, activity and functional diversity of soil microbial communities. Sci Rep 4:6895

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ratzliff A, Unutzer J, Katon W, Stephens KA (2015) Integrated Care. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ghatak KP (2014) Debye Screening Length: Effects of Nanostructured Materials. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Fontani M, Orna MV, Costa M (2016) Chemists in the Royal University of Florence Era (1924–46). In: Orna MV, Costa M (eds) Chemistry and Chemists in Florence: From the Last of the Medici Family to the European Magnetic Resonance Center. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 85–100

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cliometrica.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) New GM Rice Plant Could Increase Yield And Cut Greenhouse Gas Emissions. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Railroad Safety: More FRA Oversight Needed to Ensure Rail Safety in Region 2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Venegas Carro GI (2017) The Slow Movements of Anton Bruckner’s Symphonies: Dialogical Perspectives. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J (2016) A Climate Change Evangelist. New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willoughby 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Willoughby 2007; Aragão and Shimabukuro 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aragão and Shimabukuro 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCliometrica
AbbreviationCliometrica (Berl)
ISSN (print)1863-2505
ISSN (online)1863-2513
Economics and Econometrics

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