How to format your references using the Cliometrica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cliometrica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wisdom J (2003) Swimming in spacetime: motion by cyclic changes in body shape. Science 299:1865–1869
A journal article with 2 authors
Dufour SC, Felbeck H (2003) Sulphide mining by the superextensile foot of symbiotic thyasirid bivalves. Nature 426:65–67
A journal article with 3 authors
Longrich NR, Bhullar B-AS, Gauthier JA (2012) A transitional snake from the Late Cretaceous period of North America. Nature 488:205–208
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Loscertales IG, Barrero A, Guerrero I, et al (2002) Micro/nano encapsulation via electrified coaxial liquid jets. Science 295:1695–1698

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krasner D (2011) A History of Modern Drama. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Cagnoni S, Mirolli M, Villani M (eds) (2014) Evolution, Complexity and Artificial Life. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang L, Yang T, Shi P, Zhu Y (2016) Time-Delay Systems Case. In: Yang T, Shi P, Zhu Y (eds) Analysis and Design of Markov Jump Systems with Complex Transition Probabilities. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 57–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cliometrica.

Blog post
Andrew D (2017) What’s The Point Of Sex? It’s Good For Your Physical, Social And Mental Health. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Space Station: Cost Control Problems Continue to Worsen. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weissflug KG (2009) Effects of Positive Behavior Support Programs on Student Behaviors. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L (2008) Looking Nice Either Way. New York Times F3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wisdom 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Wisdom 2003; Dufour and Felbeck 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dufour and Felbeck 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Loscertales et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCliometrica
AbbreviationCliometrica (Berl)
ISSN (print)1863-2505
ISSN (online)1863-2513
Economics and Econometrics

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