How to format your references using the International Journal of Nursing Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Nursing Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lodders K. Astronomy. Brown dwarfs--faint at heart, rich in chemistry. Science. 2004 Jan 16;303(5656):323–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brasier M, Antcliffe J. Paleobiology. Decoding the Ediacaran enigma. Science. 2004 Aug 20;305(5687):1115–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gawronski H, Mehlhorn M, Morgenstern K. Imaging phonon excitation with atomic resolution. Science. 2008 Feb 15;319(5865):930–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ali MA, Srivastava S, Solanki PR, Reddy V, Agrawal VV, Kim C, et al. Highly efficient bienzyme functionalized nanocomposite-based microfluidics biosensor platform for biomedical application. Sci Rep. 2013 Sep 27;3:2661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ryan TP. Modern Engineering Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Bargon J, Kuhn LT, editors. In situ NMR Methods in Catalysis. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. XII, 169 p. (Topics in Current Chemistry; vol. 276).
A chapter in an edited book
Neupane K, Steinwandt R. Communication-Efficient 2-Round Group Key Establishment from Pairings. In: Kiayias A, editor. Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2011: The Cryptographers’ Track at the RSA Conference 2011, San Francisco, CA, USA, February 14-18, 2011 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 65–76. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Nursing Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Diagnostic Platform Can Detect Over 1,000 Pathogens In Just 6 Hours [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aircraft Maintenance: FAA Needs to Follow Through on Plans to Ensure the Safety of Aging Aircraft. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Feb. Report No.: RCED-93-91.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tillman KA. Constructing the Concept of Time: Roles of Perception, Language, and Culture [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic B. Federal Judge Halts Legal Challenges in Detroit Bankruptcy Case. New York Times. 2013 Jul 25;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Nursing Practice
AbbreviationInt. J. Nurs. Pract.
ISSN (print)1322-7114
ISSN (online)1440-172X
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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