How to format your references using the International Journal of Nursing Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Nursing Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dever TE. Molecular biology. A new start for protein synthesis. Science. 2012 Jun 29;336(6089):1645–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
von Zastrow M, Mostov K. Signal transduction. A new thread in an intricate web. Science. 2001 Nov 30;294(5548):1845–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ungless MA, Magill PJ, Bolam JP. Uniform inhibition of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area by aversive stimuli. Science. 2004 Mar 26;303(5666):2040–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stemmler K, Ammann M, Donders C, Kleffmann J, George C. Photosensitized reduction of nitrogen dioxide on humic acid as a source of nitrous acid. Nature. 2006 Mar 9;440(7081):195–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baban TM. Shallow Foundations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Paige RF, editor. Theory and Practice of Model Transformations: Second International Conference, ICMT 2009, Zurich, Switzerland, June 29-30, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. X, 285 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 5563).
A chapter in an edited book
Basso-Blandin A, Delaplace F. GUBS a Language for Synthetic Biology: Specification and Compilation. In: Ibarra OH, Kari L, Kopecki S, editors. Unconventional Computation and Natural Computation: 13th International Conference, UCNC 2014, London, ON, Canada, July 14-18, 2014, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 40–53. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Nursing Practice.

Blog post
Fang J. 10,000 Years of Bones Reveal How Climate Affected Bunny Booms in the Past [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Travel and Communicable Diseases: Comprehensive Federal Plan Needed for U.S. Aviation System’s Preparedness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Dec. Report No.: GAO-16-127.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wood ED. A Study of the Effect of Grouping Students and Results on the Ohio Achievement Assessment for Reading [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S. New Era After O’Reilly? Women Aren’t So Sure. New York Times. 2017 Apr 20;B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Nursing Practice
AbbreviationInt. J. Nurs. Pract.
ISSN (print)1322-7114
ISSN (online)1440-172X
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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