How to format your references using the International Journal of Nursing Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Nursing Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Martinez Arias A. Cell signaling. Frizzled at the cutting edge of the synapse. Science. 2005 Nov 25;310(5752):1284–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yin Y, Alivisatos AP. Colloidal nanocrystal synthesis and the organic-inorganic interface. Nature. 2005 Sep 29;437(7059):664–70.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dawkins MS, Donnelly CA, Jones TA. Chicken welfare is influenced more by housing conditions than by stocking density. Nature. 2004 Jan 22;427(6972):342–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li J, Van Vliet KJ, Zhu T, Yip S, Suresh S. Atomistic mechanisms governing elastic limit and incipient plasticity in crystals. Nature. 2002 Jul 18;418(6895):307–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rabe JL, Martorana RJ. Alts Democratized. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Sneyd J, editor. Tutorials in Mathematical Biosciences II: Mathematical Modeling of Calcium Dynamics and Signal Transduction. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. X, 202 p. 87 illus., 16 illus. in color. (Lecture Notes in Mathematics; vol. 1867).
A chapter in an edited book
Zhao Y, Zhou W, Zhang Y, Lanham EJ, Huang J. Clock Synchronization State Graphs Based on Clock Precision Difference. In: Hobbs M, Goscinski AM, Zhou W, editors. Distributed and Parallel Computing: 6th International Conference on Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing, ICA3PP, Melbourne, Australia, October 2-3, 2005 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 34–9. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Nursing Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. Meet The Wild Animals Who Put Their Partners First (Just Don’t Call It Love) [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak’s Financial Crisis Threatens Continued Viability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Apr. Report No.: T-RCED-97-147.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stewart DA. Principals’ post-observation feedback and its influence on teacher professional growth at two Southern California Catholic high schools [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Gives Employees Broader Protection Against Retaliation in Workplace. New York Times. 2006 Jun 23;A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Nursing Practice
AbbreviationInt. J. Nurs. Pract.
ISSN (print)1322-7114
ISSN (online)1440-172X
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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