How to format your references using the International Journal of Nursing Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Nursing Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elliott T. Planetary science. Speed metal. Science. 2014 Jun 6;344(6188):1086–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Auer S, Frenkel D. Suppression of crystal nucleation in polydisperse colloids due to increase of the surface free energy. Nature. 2001 Oct 18;413(6857):711–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Collins FS, Gray GM, Bucher JR. Toxicology. Transforming environmental health protection. Science. 2008 Feb 15;319(5865):906–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Heldwein EE, Lou H, Bender FC, Cohen GH, Eisenberg RJ, Harrison SC. Crystal structure of glycoprotein B from herpes simplex virus 1. Science. 2006 Jul 14;313(5784):217–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown T, Andrews GJ, Cummins S, Greenhough B, Lewis D, Power A. Health Geographies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Kunkel JM, Ludwig T, Meuer HW, editors. Supercomputing: 28th International Supercomputing Conference, ISC 2013, Leipzig, Germany, June 16-20, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XII, 477 p. 210 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 7905).
A chapter in an edited book
Smith D, Mayes T, Smith R. Culture-Specific Diagnoses. In: Loue S, Sajatovic M, editors. Encyclopedia of Immigrant Health. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Nursing Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. Resurgent Pine Martens Could Be Good News For Red Squirrels [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on the Solar Power Satellite Research, Development, and Demonstration Program Act of 1978. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Apr. Report No.: EMD-78-61.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tan SW. A pedagogical approach to selected études from Étude en douze exercices, S.136 and Études d ’exécution transcendante, S.139 by Franz Liszt [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Biillard M. Listen Up, but Good. New York Times. 2010 May 6;E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,1.
This sentence cites four references 1,1,1,1.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Nursing Practice
AbbreviationInt. J. Nurs. Pract.
ISSN (print)1322-7114
ISSN (online)1440-172X
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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