How to format your references using the International Journal of Nursing Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Nursing Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Colman SM. Paleoclimate. A fresh look at glacial floods. Science. 2002 May 17;296(5571):1251–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nicholls RJ, Cazenave A. Sea-level rise and its impact on coastal zones. Science. 2010 Jun 18;328(5985):1517–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kilner RM, Madden JR, Hauber ME. Brood parasitic cowbird nestlings use host young to procure resources. Science. 2004 Aug 6;305(5685):877–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xu X, Makovicky PJ, Wang Xl XL, Norell MA, You Hl HL. A ceratopsian dinosaur from China and the early evolution of Ceratopsia. Nature. 2002 Mar 21;416(6878):314–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cliteur P. The Secular Outlook. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Fry H, Kneebone R, editors. Surgical Education: Theorising an Emerging Domain. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. X, 258 p. (Advances in Medical Education; vol. 2).
A chapter in an edited book
Alkemade T, Jeuring J. Type Class Instances for Type-Level Lambdas in Haskell. In: Serrano M, Hage J, editors. Trends in Functional Programming: 16th International Symposium, TFP 2015, Sophia Antipolis, France, June 3-5, 2015 Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 60–84. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Nursing Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. Researchers May Have Created A H1N1 Flu Strain Capable Of Evading The Immune System [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Technology Assessment: Water in the Energy Sector: Reducing Freshwater Use in Hydraulic Fracturing and Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Aug. Report No.: GAO-15-545.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gillaspy KM. Words of Samsara [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. With Loss and an Injury, It’s Just Another Day for the Mets. New York Times. 2017 Jun 28;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Nursing Practice
AbbreviationInt. J. Nurs. Pract.
ISSN (print)1322-7114
ISSN (online)1440-172X
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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