How to format your references using the International Journal of Multiphase Flow citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Multiphase Flow. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R.F., 2000. CHEMISTRY: Crystals Branch Out Into Exotic Shapes. Science 290, 1875.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wei, S., Li, X., 2014. Differential effects of propranolol on conditioned hyperactivity and locomotor sensitization induced by morphine in rats. Sci. Rep. 4, 3786.
A journal article with 3 authors
Engler, H.S., Spencer, K.C., Gilbert, L.E., 2000. Preventing cyanide release from leaves. Nature 406, 144–145.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Han, L., Liu, H., Cui, P., Peng, Z., Zhang, S., Yang, J., 2014. Alloy Cu₃Pt nanoframes through the structure evolution in Cu-Pt nanoparticles with a core-shell construction. Sci. Rep. 4, 6414.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott, K., 2017. Sustainable and Green Electrochemical Science and Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
DePalma, R., Napier, D.B., Dze-Ngwa, W. (Eds.), 2015. Revitalizing Minority Voices: Language Issues in the New Millennium, The World Council of Comparative Education Societies. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Falcocchio, J.C., Levinson, H.S., 2015. Overview of the Causes of Congestion, in: Levinson, H.S. (Ed.), Road Traffic Congestion: A Concise Guide, Springer Tracts on Transportation and Traffic. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 35–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Multiphase Flow.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Entire Skeleton Of Fanged Dinosaur Seen By Bombarding It With Powerful X-Rays [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. Need for Active Alcohol Public Education Program (No. 105900). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, C., 2012. Directed blogging with community college ESL students: Its effects on awareness of language acquisition processes (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2007. Village Wants Restaurant Wastewater Degreased. New York Times LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Service, 2000; Wei and Li, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wei and Li, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Han et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Multiphase Flow
ISSN (print)0301-9322
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Mechanical Engineering
General Physics and Astronomy

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