How to format your references using the International Journal of Multiphase Flow citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Multiphase Flow. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell, K., 2003. High-tech, high society. Nature 426, 720–721.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dimond, A., Fraser, P., 2013. Molecular biology. Long noncoding RNAs Xist in three dimensions. Science 341, 720–721.
A journal article with 3 authors
Toda, S., Stein, R.S., Sagiya, T., 2002. Evidence from the AD 2000 Izu islands earthquake swarm that stressing rate governs seismicity. Nature 419, 58–61.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smith, F.A., Boyer, A.G., Brown, J.H., Costa, D.P., Dayan, T., Ernest, S.K.M., Evans, A.R., Fortelius, M., Gittleman, J.L., Hamilton, M.J., Harding, L.E., Lintulaakso, K., Lyons, S.K., McCain, C., Okie, J.G., Saarinen, J.J., Sibly, R.M., Stephens, P.R., Theodor, J., Uhen, M.D., 2010. The evolution of maximum body size of terrestrial mammals. Science 330, 1216–1219.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, R., 2005. Rational Choice and Judgment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Goossens, S., 2016. Memory Controllers for Mixed-Time-Criticality Systems: Architectures, Methodologies and Trade-offs, Embedded Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Goyal, P., Hwang, P.H., 2007. Septal and Turbinate Surgery, in: Kountakis, S.E., Önerci, M. (Eds.), Rhinologic and Sleep Apnea Surgical Techniques. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 49–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Multiphase Flow.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. Check Out This Trippy Video Of The “Glory Hole” Spillway In Lake Berryessa [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Amtrak: Limited Income From the Revenue Enhancement Program (No. RCED-90-76). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lovejoy, L.P., 2010. On the control of selective attention in the primate superior colliculus (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2013. For Some Players, Tax Ensures a Loss Even After a Win. New York Times B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Dimond and Fraser, 2013; Powell, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dimond and Fraser, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Multiphase Flow
ISSN (print)0301-9322
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Mechanical Engineering
General Physics and Astronomy

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