How to format your references using the International Journal of Multiphase Flow citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Multiphase Flow. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holt, R.D., 2000. Evolutionary biology. Use it or lose it. Nature 407, 689–690.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rosenthal, Y., Broccoli, A.J., 2004. Atmospheric science. In search of paleo-ENSO. Science 304, 219–221.
A journal article with 3 authors
Soares, L., Parisi, M., Bonini, N.M., 2014. Axon injury and regeneration in the adult Drosophila. Sci. Rep. 4, 6199.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Möbius, M.E., Lauderdale, B.E., Nagel, S.R., Jaeger, H.M., 2001. Size separation of granular particles. Nature 414, 270.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malpass, D.B., Band, E.I., 2012. Introduction to Industrial Polypropylene. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Flegel, U., Bruschi, D. (Eds.), 2009. Detection of Intrusions and Malware, and Vulnerability Assessment: 6th International Conference, DIMVA 2009, Como, Italy, July 9-10, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Juhasz, T., 2013. Challenges of Femtosecond Laser Technologies for Cataract Surgery, in: Krueger, R.R., Talamo, J.H., Lindstrom, R.L. (Eds.), Textbook of Refractive Laser Assisted Cataract Surgery (ReLACS). Springer, New York, NY, pp. 39–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Multiphase Flow.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Watch This Week’s Total Solar Eclipse Live [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Urban Mass Transportation Administration’s Enforcement of Buy America Provisions of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act (No. T-RCED-88-33). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sefrit, J., 2008. A study of the effectiveness of a school district’s mentoring /professional development plan for beginning teachers (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Moschen, I., 2013. The Two-Wheeled Amenity. New York Times RE8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holt, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Holt, 2000; Rosenthal and Broccoli, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rosenthal and Broccoli, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Möbius et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Multiphase Flow
ISSN (print)0301-9322
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Mechanical Engineering
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles