How to format your references using the International Journal of Multiphase Flow citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Multiphase Flow. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Malim, M.H., 2014. HIV: Ringside views. Nature 505, 167–168.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sablowski, R., Harberd, N.P., 2005. Plant sciences. Plant genes on steroids. Science 307, 1569–1570.
A journal article with 3 authors
Makovicky, P.J., Apesteguía, S., Agnolín, F.L., 2005. The earliest dromaeosaurid theropod from South America. Nature 437, 1007–1011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
LaHaye, M.D., Buu, O., Camarota, B., Schwab, K.C., 2004. Approaching the quantum limit of a nanomechanical resonator. Science 304, 74–77.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zepernick, H.-J., Finger, A., 2005. Pseudo Random Signal Processing. John Wiley & Sons Ltd,., West Sussex, England.
An edited book
Bezdek, K., Deza, A., Ye, Y. (Eds.), 2013. Discrete Geometry and Optimization, Fields Institute Communications. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, Q., 2005. China Putian Promote Commercial TD-SCDMA Services, in: Wu, Z., Chen, C., Guo, M., Bu, J. (Eds.), Embedded Software and Systems: First International Conference, ICESS 2004, Hangzhou, China, December 9-10, 2004, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 25–29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Multiphase Flow.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Top Military Generals Warn That Climate Change Will Create A Major Refugee Crisis [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. B-2 Costs (No. NSIAD-93-253R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dusenberry, W., 2017. Integrating depth psychology in adolescent court-mandated treatment facilities: Increasing treatment efficacy and client engagement (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Scouting Report. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Malim, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Malim, 2014; Sablowski and Harberd, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sablowski and Harberd, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (LaHaye et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Multiphase Flow
ISSN (print)0301-9322
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Mechanical Engineering
General Physics and Astronomy

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