How to format your references using the International Journal of Multiphase Flow citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Multiphase Flow. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodman, S., 2003. University challenge Paris. Nature 422, 644–645.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stark, C.P., Stieglitz, M., 2000. Hydrology. The sting in a fractal tail. Nature 403, 493, 495.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elsner, J.B., Kossin, J.P., Jagger, T.H., 2008. The increasing intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones. Nature 455, 92–95.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xia, W., Qiu, B., Xia, D., Zou, R., 2013. Facile preparation of hierarchically porous carbons from metal-organic gels and their application in energy storage. Sci. Rep. 3, 1935.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sobel, A., 2009. All for One. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Curbera, G.P., Mockenhaupt, G., Ricker, W.J. (Eds.), 2010. Vector Measures, Integration and Related Topics, Operator Theory: Advances and Applications. Birkhäuser, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmadi, R., Newby, M., 2010. A New Approach to Maintenance Optimization by Modeling Intensity Control, in: Rykov, V.V., Balakrishnan, N., Nikulin, M.S. (Eds.), Mathematical and Statistical Models and Methods in Reliability: Applications to Medicine, Finance, and Quality Control. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, pp. 69–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Multiphase Flow.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. Orangutan “Kiss Squeaks” Could Give Insight Into Evolution Of Human Language [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Aviation Safety: Problems Persist in FAA’s Inspection Program (No. RCED-92-14). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zamora, L., 2017. Azura digital health: Scheduling application and prescription service for women’s health (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Reinhart, M.K., 2010. Kathryn Bertine and George Varhola Jr. New York Times ST14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goodman, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Goodman, 2003; Stark and Stieglitz, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stark and Stieglitz, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Xia et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Multiphase Flow
ISSN (print)0301-9322
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Mechanical Engineering
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles