How to format your references using the International Journal of Multiphase Flow citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Multiphase Flow. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Flicek, P., 2010. Journal club. A computational geneticist looks at mechanisms of chromosomal evolution. Nature 463, 713.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fuchs-Schündeln, N., Schündeln, M., 2015. Political economy. On the endogeneity of political preferences: evidence from individual experience with democracy. Science 347, 1145–1148.
A journal article with 3 authors
Douglas, S.M., Bachelet, I., Church, G.M., 2012. A logic-gated nanorobot for targeted transport of molecular payloads. Science 335, 831–834.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Choudhury, D., Pal, B., Sharma, A., Bhat, S.V., Sarma, D.D., 2013. Magnetization in electron- and Mn-doped SrTiO3. Sci. Rep. 3, 1433.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller, J.M., 2009. Chromatography. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Choi, M.K.-T., 2013. Online Dating as A Strategic Game: Why and How Men in Hong Kong Use QQ to Chase Women in Mainland China. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lau, H.Y.K., Wong, E.Y.C., 2005. An AIS-Based Dynamic Routing (AISDR) Framework, in: Jacob, C., Pilat, M.L., Bentley, P.J., Timmis, J.I. (Eds.), Artificial Immune Systems: 4th International Conference, ICARIS 2005, Banff, Alberta, Canada, August 14-17, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 56–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Multiphase Flow.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Saturn Hexagonal Storm Changes Color [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. UMTA Project Oversight and Mass Transit Issues (No. T-RCED-90-103). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li, H., 2017. Improvement of Compressive Strength of Oil Well Cement by Agitation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F., 2006. The Legacies They Left. New York Times 14LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Flicek, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Flicek, 2010; Fuchs-Schündeln and Schündeln, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fuchs-Schündeln and Schündeln, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Choudhury et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Multiphase Flow
ISSN (print)0301-9322
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Mechanical Engineering
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles