How to format your references using the International Journal of Multiphase Flow citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Multiphase Flow. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dowdeswell, J.A., 2006. Atmospheric science. The Greenland Ice Sheet and global sea-level rise. Science 311, 963–964.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ortiz, C., Boyce, M.C., 2008. Materials science. Bioinspired structural materials. Science 319, 1053–1054.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripati, A.K., Roberts, C.D., Eagle, R.A., 2009. Coupling of CO2 and ice sheet stability over major climate transitions of the last 20 million years. Science 326, 1394–1397.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vecchi, C., Montosi, G., Zhang, K., Lamberti, I., Duncan, S.A., Kaufman, R.J., Pietrangelo, A., 2009. ER stress controls iron metabolism through induction of hepcidin. Science 325, 877–880.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Worth, S.M., 2010. The Association Guide to Going Global. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Beer, G., 2008. The Boundary Element Method with Programming: For engineers and scientists. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaban, V.V., 2008. Estrogen Modulation of Visceral Nociception, in: Ritsner, M.S., Weizman, A. (Eds.), Neuroactive Steroids in Brain Function, Behavior and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Novel Strategies for Research and Treatment. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 89–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Multiphase Flow.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. High Levels Of Fecal Bacteria Found On KFC’s Ice [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017. School Bus Safety: Crash Data Trends and Federal and State Requirements (No. GAO-17-209). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, D., 2004. Chamber Music in Early Piano Study: A Guide to Repertoire (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2009. Supervisor for the Short Term in Brookhaven. New York Times LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dowdeswell, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Dowdeswell, 2006; Ortiz and Boyce, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ortiz and Boyce, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Vecchi et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Multiphase Flow
ISSN (print)0301-9322
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Mechanical Engineering
General Physics and Astronomy

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