How to format your references using the Geoscience Frontiers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscience Frontiers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mueller, K.L., 2010. Innate immunity. Recognizing the first responders. Introduction. Science 327, 283.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, C.R., Siwy, Z.S., 2007. Chemistry. Learning nature’s way: biosensing with synthetic nanopores. Science 317, 331–332.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li de la Sierra-Gallay, I., Pellegrini, O., Condon, C., 2005. Structural basis for substrate binding, cleavage and allostery in the tRNA maturase RNase Z. Nature 433, 657–661.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kukushkin, I.V., Smet, J.H., von Klitzing, K., Wegscheider, W., 2002. Cyclotron resonance of composite fermions. Nature 415, 409–412.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 2007. Guidelines for Safe and Reliable Instrumented Protective Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gao, Y. (Ed.), 2015. Urine Proteomics in Kidney Disease Biomarker Discovery, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Zühlke, D., Grunst, G., Röser, K., 2015. Cooperative Feature Selection in Personalized Medicine, in: Guy, T.V., Kárný, M., Wolpert, D.H. (Eds.), Decision Making: Uncertainty, Imperfection, Deliberation and Scalability, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 119–144.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscience Frontiers.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Mars Used To Have Earth-Like Levels Of Atmospheric Oxygen [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. U.S.-EC Aircraft Agreement (No. GGD-93-41R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheeler, J.A., 2012. The Scaling of High Harmonics with Mid-Infrared Driving Fields and a Method for the Spatial Isolation of Individual Subfemtosecond Pulses (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved, J., 2017. Signs of Vitality In the Hamptons. New York Times ST10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mueller, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Martin and Siwy, 2007; Mueller, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Siwy, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Kukushkin et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscience Frontiers
ISSN (print)1674-9871

Other styles