How to format your references using the Geoscience Frontiers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscience Frontiers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, M., 2010. Introduction: Curiosity aroused. Nature 467, S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bethell, T., Bergin, E., 2009. Formation and survival of water vapor in the terrestrial planet-forming region. Science 326, 1675–1677.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tang, R.-Y., Li, G., Yu, J.-Q., 2014. Conformation-induced remote meta-C-H activation of amines. Nature 507, 215–220.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Asanuma, H., Kakishima, S., Ito, H., Kobayashi, K., Hasegawa, E., Asami, T., Matsuura, K., Roff, D.A., Yoshimura, J., 2014. Evolutionary optimality in sex differences of longevity and athletic performances. Sci. Rep. 4, 5425.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yao, Y., Liu, S., 2014. Ultrasonic Technology for Desiccant Regeneration. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Poovendran, R., Saad, W. (Eds.), 2014. Decision and Game Theory for Security: 5th International Conference, GameSec 2014, Los Angeles, CA, USA, November 6-7, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Wagner, R.D., 2008. Effects of Microbiota on GI Health: Gnotobiotic Research, in: Huffnagle, G.B., Noverr, M.C. (Eds.), GI Microbiota and Regulation of the Immune System, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 41–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscience Frontiers.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Plate Tectonics: New Findings Fill Out The 50-Year-Old Theory That Explains Earth’s Landmasses [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Commercial Aviation: Legacy Airlines Must Further Reduce Costs to Restore Profitability (No. GAO-04-836). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robey, A.M., 2017. The Benefits of Testing: Individual Differences Based on Student Factors (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Santora, M., Baker, A.L., 2017. Despite Strict Gun Law, Doctor Was Able to Buy Assault Rifle. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bethell and Bergin, 2009; Grayson, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bethell and Bergin, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Asanuma et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscience Frontiers
ISSN (print)1674-9871

Other styles