How to format your references using the Geoscience Frontiers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscience Frontiers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clarke, T., 2002. Penicillin paper restores Fleming’s healthy reputation. Nature 419, 867.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kioussis, D., Georgopoulos, K., 2007. Epigenetic flexibility underlying lineage choices in the adaptive immune system. Science 317, 620–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sellman, B.R., Mourez, M., Collier, R.J., 2001. Dominant-negative mutants of a toxin subunit: an approach to therapy of anthrax. Science 292, 695–697.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, Q., Xin, W., He, P., Turner, D., Yin, J., Gan, Y., Shi, F.-D., Wu, J., 2014. Interleukin-17 inhibits adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Sci. Rep. 4, 7554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Villalta, T., 2012. The Large-Cap Portfolio. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Elizondo, D.A., Solanas, A., Martinez-Balleste, A. (Eds.), 2012. Computational Intelligence for Privacy and Security, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kiselev, A.V., 2007. Functional Model for Singular Perturbations of Non-self-adjoint Operators, in: Janas, J., Kurasov, P., Laptev, A., Naboko, S., Stolz, G. (Eds.), Operator Theory, Analysis and Mathematical Physics, Operator Theory: Advances and Applications. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp. 51–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscience Frontiers.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Scarlet Macaw Fossils Reveal When Complex Societies Formed in the American Southwest [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1983. Noncitizen Student Loan Defaults (No. HRD-83-29). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wiedeman, L.D., 2012. Acceptance promoting and hindering interactions in integrative behavioral couple therapy (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2017. False Rumors Are Flying About Insurance Claims. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clarke, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Clarke, 2002; Kioussis and Georgopoulos, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kioussis and Georgopoulos, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscience Frontiers
ISSN (print)1674-9871

Other styles