How to format your references using the Geoscience Frontiers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscience Frontiers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Price, C., 2000. Evidence for a link between global lightning activity and upper tropospheric water vapour. Nature 406, 290–293.
A journal article with 2 authors
Charron, S., Koechlin, E., 2010. Divided representation of concurrent goals in the human frontal lobes. Science 328, 360–363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robinson, J.W.A., Witt, J.D.S., Blamire, M.G., 2010. Controlled injection of spin-triplet supercurrents into a strong ferromagnet. Science 329, 59–61.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mohamed, B.M., Movia, D., Knyazev, A., Langevin, D., Davies, A.M., Prina-Mello, A., Volkov, Y., 2013. Citrullination as early-stage indicator of cell response to single-walled carbon nanotubes. Sci. Rep. 3, 1124.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maini, A.K., Agrawal, V., 2006. Satellite Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Shi, Y.Q., Emmanuel, S., Kankanhalli, M.S., Chang, S.-F., Radhakrishnan, R., Ma, F., Zhao, L. (Eds.), 2011. Transactions on Data Hiding and Multimedia Security VI, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Law, B., Park, K.J., Lacki, M.J., 2016. Insectivorous Bats and Silviculture: Balancing Timber Production and Bat Conservation, in: Voigt, C.C., Kingston, T. (Eds.), Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 105–150.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscience Frontiers.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Watch This Poor Hyena Fail Miserably At Sex [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Distance Education: Improved Data on Program Costs and Guidelines on Quality Assessments Needed to Inform Federal Policy (No. GAO-04-279). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hammamy, R., 2010. “Promoting responsible action in medical emergencies”: Determining the impact of a new University of Maryland alcohol protocol (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Seymour, M., 2015. How About a Nightcap? New York Times BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Price, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Charron and Koechlin, 2010; Price, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Charron and Koechlin, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Mohamed et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscience Frontiers
ISSN (print)1674-9871

Other styles