How to format your references using the Geoscience Frontiers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscience Frontiers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kelly, R.L., 2011. Retrospective. Lewis R. Binford (1931-2011). Science 332, 928.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weatherhead, E.C., Andersen, S.B., 2006. The search for signs of recovery of the ozone layer. Nature 441, 39–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakuragi, S., Tominaga-Yoshino, K., Ogura, A., 2013. Involvement of TrkB- and p75(NTR)-signaling pathways in two contrasting forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity. Sci. Rep. 3, 3185.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pillow, J.W., Shlens, J., Paninski, L., Sher, A., Litke, A.M., Chichilnisky, E.J., Simoncelli, E.P., 2008. Spatio-temporal correlations and visual signalling in a complete neuronal population. Nature 454, 995–999.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waye, J.D., Aisenberg, J., Rubin, P.H., 2013. Practical Colonoscopy. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Fitzgibbon, W., Kuznetsov, Y.A., Neittaanmäki, P., Périaux, J., Pironneau, O. (Eds.), 2010. Applied and Numerical Partial Differential Equations: Scientific Computing in Simulation, Optimization and Control in a Multidisciplinary Context, Computational Methods in Applied Sciences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Stankiewicz, J.M., Buckle, G.J., 2011. MS: Clinical Features, Symptom Management, and Diagnosis, in: Rizvi, S.A., Coyle, P.K. (Eds.), Clinical Neuroimmunology: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 89–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscience Frontiers.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Scarlet Macaw Fossils Reveal When Complex Societies Formed in the American Southwest [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Federal Vehicle Collisions and Aftermarket Collision Avoidance Technologies (No. GAO-14-408R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walsh, P.L., 2012. Advancing Electroanalytical Methods for Monitoring Chemical Messenger Release (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2012. Texas Association Criticized for Ruling on Jewish Team. New York Times B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kelly, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kelly, 2011; Weatherhead and Andersen, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weatherhead and Andersen, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Pillow et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscience Frontiers
ISSN (print)1674-9871

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