How to format your references using the Geoscience Frontiers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscience Frontiers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2004. Bricks and mortar. Switzerland switches on supercomputers. Nature 429, 326.
A journal article with 2 authors
Takagi, H., Hwang, H.Y., 2010. An emergent change of phase for electronics. Science 327, 1601–1602.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peelen, M.V., Fei-Fei, L., Kastner, S., 2009. Neural mechanisms of rapid natural scene categorization in human visual cortex. Nature 460, 94–97.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rappas, M., Schumacher, J., Beuron, F., Niwa, H., Bordes, P., Wigneshweraraj, S., Keetch, C.A., Robinson, C.V., Buck, M., Zhang, X., 2005. Structural insights into the activity of enhancer-binding proteins. Science 307, 1972–1975.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bagrintseva, K.I., 2015. Carbonate Reservoir Rocks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Murphy, C., Scantlebury, K. (Eds.), 2010. Coteaching in International Contexts: Research and Practice, Cultural Studies of Science Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Hull, C., Searle, B., 2007. The Impact of Equalization on Service Delivery, in: Martinez-Vazquez, J., Searle, B. (Eds.), Fiscal Equalization: Challenges in the Design of Intergovernmental Transfers. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 61–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscience Frontiers.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Scientists Say New AI Can Predict Future Criminals Based On Facial Features [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. DOT Headquarters: Unclear Whether Union Station Site Is Best Location (No. GGD-92-126). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gates, D.A., 2017. Best Practices and Strategies for Financial Literacy in Faith-Based Organizations (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B., 2016. Tax Cuts for Americans Like Trump. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2004; Takagi and Hwang, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Takagi and Hwang, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Rappas et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscience Frontiers
ISSN (print)1674-9871

Other styles