How to format your references using the International Journal of Multimedia Information Retrieval citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Multimedia Information Retrieval. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koenig R (2000) IRANIAN SCIENCE: Iran’s Scientists Cautiously Reach Out to the World. Science 290:1484–1487
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheu Y-J, Stillman B (2010) The Dbf4-Cdc7 kinase promotes S phase by alleviating an inhibitory activity in Mcm4. Nature 463:113–117
A journal article with 3 authors
Martignoli S, Gomez F, Stoop R (2013) Pitch sensation involves stochastic resonance. Sci Rep 3:2676
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bita I, Yang JKW, Jung YS, et al (2008) Graphoepitaxy of self-assembled block copolymers on two-dimensional periodic patterned templates. Science 321:939–943

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kwartler T (2017) Text Mining in Practice with R. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Adams C (2007) Web Standards Creativity: Innovations in Web Design with XHTML, CSS, and DOM Scripting. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
Moore D (2011) Feminist Changes in Israel. In: Rutherford A, Capdevila R, Undurti V, Palmary I (eds) Handbook of International Feminisms: Perspectives on Psychology, Women, Culture, and Rights. Springer, New York, NY, pp 59–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Multimedia Information Retrieval.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Seriously Creepy Parasite Escapes from Praying Mantis. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Joint Strike Fighter: Restructuring Places Program on Firmer Footing, but Progress Is Still Lagging. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herkert HL (2015) Toward an Unseen Shore: Imaginative Thinking in Childhood Grief. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess B, Stevenson A (2016) New Scrutiny for JPMorgan in China Hiring. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Multimedia Information Retrieval
AbbreviationInt. J. Multimed. Inf. Retr.
ISSN (print)2192-6611
ISSN (online)2192-662X
ScopeInformation Systems
Media Technology
Library and Information Sciences

Other styles