How to format your references using the International Journal of Multimedia Information Retrieval citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Multimedia Information Retrieval (Int J Multimed Info Retr). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giles J (2002) Attosecond science: the fast show. Nature 420:737
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen IW, Wang XH (2000) Sintering dense nanocrystalline ceramics without final-stage grain growth. Nature 404:168–171
A journal article with 3 authors
David C, Mortensen NA, Christensen J (2013) Perfect imaging, epsilon-near zero phenomena and waveguiding in the scope of nonlocal effects. Sci Rep 3:2526
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Naureckiene S, Sleat DE, Lackland H, et al (2000) Identification of HE1 as the second gene of Niemann-Pick C disease. Science 290:2298–2301

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu S-C, Delbruck T, Indiveri G, et al (2015) Event-Based Neuromorphic Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Barlotti A (2011) Matroid Theory and its Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Ismail-Zadeh A, Korotkii A, Tsepelev I (2016) Quasi-Reversibility Method and Its Applications. In: Korotkii A, Tsepelev I (eds) Data-Driven Numerical Modelling in Geodynamics: Methods and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 59–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Multimedia Information Retrieval.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Forensic Breakthrough? Study Suggests Humans Can Be Identified By The Proteins In Their Hair. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Tax Systems Modernization: Time Tables for Critical Planning Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mosher L (2008) The relationship between Christian literature and executive leader performance. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Patching Together a Lineup, the Mets Come Apart Against the Nationals. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Multimedia Information Retrieval
AbbreviationInt. J. Multimed. Inf. Retr.
ISSN (print)2192-6611
ISSN (online)2192-662X
ScopeInformation Systems
Media Technology
Library and Information Sciences

Other styles