How to format your references using the International Journal of Molecular Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Molecular Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Whorton, M. Structural biology: Calcium-activated proteins visualized. Nature 2014, 516, 176–178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Breitkreutz, A.; Tyers, M. Cell signaling. A sophisticated scaffold wields a new trick. Science 2006, 311, 789–790.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palmer, M.J.; Fukuyama, F.; Relman, D.A. SCIENCE GOVERNANCE. A more systematic approach to biological risk. Science 2015, 350, 1471–1473.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Winslow, M.M.; Dayton, T.L.; Verhaak, R.G.W.; Kim-Kiselak, C.; Snyder, E.L.; Feldser, D.M.; Hubbard, D.D.; DuPage, M.J.; Whittaker, C.A.; Hoersch, S.; et al. Suppression of lung adenocarcinoma progression by Nkx2-1. Nature 2011, 473, 101–104.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quesnel, F. Scheduling of Large-Scale Virtualized Infrastructures; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781118790335.
An edited book
Reddy, G.V. Recovering Biodiversity in Indian Forests; Karanth, K.U., Kumar, N.S., Krishnaswamy, J., Karanth, K.K., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Ecology; Springer: Singapore, 2016; ISBN 9789811009099.
A chapter in an edited book
Kilian, T.; Walsh, G.; Buxel, H. Measurement of Attitude Toward Private Labels: A Replication and Extension. In European Retail Research; Swoboda, B., Morschett, D., Rudolph, T., Schnedlitz, P., Schramm-Klein, H., Eds.; European Retail Research; Gabler Verlag: Wiesbaden, 2009; pp. 69–85 ISBN 9783834910844.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Molecular Sciences.

Blog post
Fang, J. Bison Fossils Suggest An Ice-Free Corridor Paved The Way For Ancient Human Migration Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Education’s Library: Actions Needed to Improve Its Usefulness; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carpenter, K.J. The Relationship between School Leadership Practices And School Climate. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Top General In Chechnya Is Fired. New York Times 2002, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
AbbreviationInt. J. Mol. Sci.
ISSN (online)1422-0067
ScopeMolecular Biology
Inorganic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
Computer Science Applications
General Medicine

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