How to format your references using the International Journal of Molecular Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Molecular Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang, C.-C. Perspective: Give Youth a Chance. Nature 2015, 520, S36.
A journal article with 2 authors
de Visser, J.A.G.M.; Rozen, D.E. Comment on “High Deleterious Genomic Mutation Rate in Stationary Phase of Escherichia Coli.” Science 2004, 304, 518; author reply 518.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hunte, C.; Zickermann, V.; Brandt, U. Functional Modules and Structural Basis of Conformational Coupling in Mitochondrial Complex I. Science 2010, 329, 448–451.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fang, C.; Smith, P.; Moncrieff, J.B.; Smith, J.U. Similar Response of Labile and Resistant Soil Organic Matter Pools to Changes in Temperature. Nature 2005, 433, 57–59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sugirtharajah, R.S. Exploring Postcolonial Biblical Criticism; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781444396652.
An edited book
Children’s Orthopaedics and Fractures; Benson, M., Fixsen, J., Macnicol, M., Parsch, K., Eds.; Springer: London, 2009; ISBN 9781848826106.
A chapter in an edited book
Harris, K. Selling and Building Linked Data: Drive Value and Gain Momentum. In Linking Enterprise Data; Wood, D., Ed.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2010; pp. 65–76 ISBN 9781441976642.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Molecular Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, D. It’s All In The Rotation: Exploring Planets Orbiting Distant Stars Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Protest of Contract Award to NASA by City of Los Angeles; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1979;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hooper, K.J. Los Angeles School Police Department Arrest Diversion: A Process Evaluation. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. CBS Wrongly Reports Singer’s Death. New York Times 2017, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
AbbreviationInt. J. Mol. Sci.
ISSN (online)1422-0067
ScopeMolecular Biology
Inorganic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
Computer Science Applications
General Medicine

Other styles