How to format your references using the Palaeontology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeontology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
BAKER, M. 2011. Microscopy: Bright light, better labels. Nature, 478, 137–142.
A journal article with 2 authors
PIMM, S. L. and VAN AARDE, R. J. 2001. African elephants and contraception. Nature, 411, 766.
A journal article with 3 authors
MONTHOUX, P., PINES, D. and LONZARICH, G. G. 2007. Superconductivity without phonons. Nature, 450, 1177–1183.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
GLORIEUX, G., HULKO, M., SPEIDEL, R., BRODBECK, K., KRAUSE, B. and VANHOLDER, R. 2014. Looking beyond endotoxin: a comparative study of pyrogen retention by ultrafilters used for the preparation of sterile dialyis fluid. Scientific reports, 4, 6390.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
ROGERS, E. F., Jr. 2013. Aquinas and the Supreme Court. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
IVANCEVIC, T. T. 2011. Paradigm Shift for Future Tennis: The Art of Tennis Physiology, Biomechanics and Psychology. In JOVANOVIC, B., JOVANOVIC, S., DJUKIC, M., DJUKIC, N. and LUKMAN, A. (eds.) Cognitive Systems Monographs. Vol. 12. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
HAFEZ, A. I., HASSANIEN, A. E. and FAHMY, A. A. 2014. Testing Community Detection Algorithms: A Closer Look at Datasets. In PANDA, M., DEHURI, S. and WANG, G.-N. (eds.) Social Networking: Mining, Visualization, and Security, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 85–99 pp.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeontology.

Blog post
ANDREW, E. 2015. Wasps Use Facial Recognition To Identify Intruders. IFLScience. Downloaded from on 30 October 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 2007. Freight Railroads: Updated Information on Rates and Other Industry Trends. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
FEARRINGTON, N. D. 2008. The relationship between fathers’ pre -natal involvement with the mother and post -natal involvement with the child(ren).Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MNpp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
WALSH, M. W. 2012. Settlement Money Patched Nassau County Budget Gaps. New York Times, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Pimm & van Aarde 2001; Baker 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pimm & van Aarde 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Glorieux et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeontology
ISSN (print)0031-0239
ISSN (online)1475-4983
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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