How to format your references using the Palaeontology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeontology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
STEVENSON, D. J. 2001. Planetary science. Jupiter and its moons. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294, 71–72.
A journal article with 2 authors
CALKA, A. and WEXLER, D. 2002. Mechanical milling assisted by electrical discharge. Nature, 419, 147–151.
A journal article with 3 authors
WATANABE, K. N., TAEB, M. and OKUSU, H. 2004. Biotechnology. Japanese controversies over transgenic crop regulation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305, 1572.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
CHO, S. M., KIM, H. V., LEE, S., KIM, H. Y., KIM, W., KIM, T. S., KIM, D. J. and KIM, Y. 2014. Correlations of amyloid-β concentrations between CSF and plasma in acute Alzheimer mouse model. Scientific reports, 4, 6777.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
HOLZER, S. M. 2015. Statische Beurteilung Historischer Tragwerke. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
2013. Advanced Color Image Processing and Analysis. In FERNANDEZ-MALOIGNE, C. (ed.) Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
BARROS DOS SANTOS, P., DA MOTA SOARES-CAVALCANTI, N., VIEIRA-DE-MELO, G. S. and BENKO-ISEPPON, A. M. 2011. Osmoprotectants in the Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) Transcriptome Revealed by in Silico Evaluation. In RIZZO, R. and LISBOA, P. J. G. (eds.) Computational Intelligence Methods for Bioinformatics and Biostatistics: 7th International Meeting, CIBB 2010, Palermo, Italy, September 16-18, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 44–58 pp.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeontology.

Blog post
FANG, J. 2014. Watch What Happens When You Stick Your Hand Into ‘Hot Ice’. IFLScience. Downloaded from on 30 October 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1976. Assessment of the Impact Aid Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
REICH, J. C. 2010. An iterative feature perturbation method for gene selection from microarray data.Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FLpp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
KENIGSBERG, B. 2017. The Nuptials Are Set. The Groom? TBD. New York Times, C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stevenson 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Stevenson 2001; Calka & Wexler 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Calka & Wexler 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Cho et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeontology
ISSN (print)0031-0239
ISSN (online)1475-4983
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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