How to format your references using the Palaeontology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeontology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
SHIH, W. M. 2015. Materials Science. Exploiting weak interactions in DNA self-assembly. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347, 1417–1418.
A journal article with 2 authors
BURGISSER, A. and SCAILLET, B. 2007. Redox evolution of a degassing magma rising to the surface. Nature, 445, 194–197.
A journal article with 3 authors
PERRACHIONE, T. K., DEL TUFO, S. N. and GABRIELI, J. D. E. 2011. Human voice recognition depends on language ability. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333, 595.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
BOURGOIN, M., OUELLETTE, N. T., XU, H., BERG, J. and BODENSCHATZ, E. 2006. The role of pair dispersion in turbulent flow. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311, 835–838.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
KASSAPOGLOU, C. 2010. Design and Analysis of Composite Structures. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
2011. Modeling and Using Context: 7th International and Interdisciplinary Conference, CONTEXT 2011, Karlsruhe, Germany, September 26-30, 2011. Proceedings. In BEIGL, M., CHRISTIANSEN, H., ROTH-BERGHOFER, T. R., KOFOD-PETERSEN, A., COVENTRY, K. R. and SCHMIDTKE, H. R. (eds.) Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 6967. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
EPENOY, R. 2016. Low-Thrust Transfers Between Libration Point Orbits Without Explicit Use of Manifolds. In BONNARD, B. and CHYBA, M. (eds.) Recent Advances in Celestial and Space Mechanics, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 143–178 pp.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeontology.

Blog post
O`CALLAGHAN, J. 2016. Uncertainty As ESA’s ExoMars Lander Fails To Phone Home. IFLScience. Downloaded from on 30 October 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 2014. Telecommunications: USDA Should Evaluate the Performance of the Rural Broadband Loan Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
TYLER, E. P. 2013. Tectonic geomorphology of quaternary river terraces at Santa Cruz Creek, Santa Maria Basin, Santa Barbara County, California.Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CApp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
PILON, M. 2014. Rare Medal Sweep for the United States. New York Times, B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shih 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Burgisser and Scaillet 2007; Shih 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burgisser and Scaillet 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Bourgoin et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeontology
ISSN (print)0031-0239
ISSN (online)1475-4983
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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