How to format your references using the Brain Behavior and Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Behavior and Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Farmelo, G., 2005. Dirac’s hidden geometry. Nature 437, 323.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mercer, J.M., Roth, V.L., 2003. The effects of Cenozoic global change on squirrel phylogeny. Science 299, 1568–1572.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palter, J.B., Lozier, M.S., Barber, R.T., 2005. The effect of advection on the nutrient reservoir in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Nature 437, 687–692.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yarrow, K., Haggard, P., Heal, R., Brown, P., Rothwell, J.C., 2001. Illusory perceptions of space and time preserve cross-saccadic perceptual continuity. Nature 414, 302–305.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bhaskar, K., Varadan Retd., T.K., 2014. Plates. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Gunderson, L.L., Willett, C.G., Calvo, F.A., Harrison, L.B. (Eds.), 2011. Intraoperative Irradiation: Techniques and Results, Current Clinical Oncology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Varekamp, J.C., 2015. The Chemical Composition and Evolution of Volcanic Lakes, in: Rouwet, D., Christenson, B., Tassi, F., Vandemeulebrouck, J. (Eds.), Volcanic Lakes, Advances in Volcanology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 93–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Behavior and Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Awesome Time-Lapse Of Biggest Sunspot In 24 Years [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ Third Expenditure Plan (No. GAO-01-227). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodman, R.A., 2010. Casual factors that contribute to gender bias in career choice among junior high school age females (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L., 2007. Coziness, With Good Lines. New York Times F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Farmelo, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Farmelo, 2005; Mercer and Roth, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mercer and Roth, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Yarrow et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Behavior and Immunity
AbbreviationBrain Behav. Immun.
ISSN (print)0889-1591
Behavioral Neuroscience
Endocrine and Autonomic Systems

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