How to format your references using the Brain Behavior and Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Behavior and Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R.F., 2008. Problem solved (sort of). Science 321, 784–786.
A journal article with 2 authors
Soundararajan, V., Aravamudan, M., 2014. Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy. Sci. Rep. 4, 7294.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, H., Lee, B.P., Messersmith, P.B., 2007. A reversible wet/dry adhesive inspired by mussels and geckos. Nature 448, 338–341.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kishikawa, T., Otsuka, M., Yoshikawa, T., Ohno, M., Takata, A., Shibata, C., Kondo, Y., Akanuma, M., Yoshida, H., Koike, K., 2013. Regulation of the expression of the liver cancer susceptibility gene MICA by microRNAs. Sci. Rep. 3, 2739.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Richter, D.H., 2017. Reading the Eighteenth-Century Novel. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ahmad, P., Prasad, M.N.V. (Eds.), 2012. Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants: Metabolism, Productivity and Sustainability. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Gallant, B.M., Lu, Y.-C., Mitchell, R.R., Kwabi, D.G., Carney, T.J., Thompson, C.V., Shao-Horn, Y., 2014. The Kinetics and Product Characteristics of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution in LiO2 Batteries, in: Imanishi, N., Luntz, A.C., Bruce, P. (Eds.), The Lithium Air Battery: Fundamentals. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 121–158.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Behavior and Immunity.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Spectacular Eruption At Japanese Volcano Creates Sky High Plume Bathed In Lightning [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Media Contracts: Activities and Financial Obligations for Seven Federal Departments (No. GAO-06-305). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
van der Veen, A.M., 2012. Domestic Politics, International Inaction: The United States and Human Rights Treaties (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2001. UPPER WEST SIDE. New York Times 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Service, 2008; Soundararajan and Aravamudan, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Soundararajan and Aravamudan, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kishikawa et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Behavior and Immunity
AbbreviationBrain Behav. Immun.
ISSN (print)0889-1591
Behavioral Neuroscience
Endocrine and Autonomic Systems

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