How to format your references using the Brain Behavior and Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Behavior and Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Myhre, G., 2009. Consistency between satellite-derived and modeled estimates of the direct aerosol effect. Science 325, 187–190.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberson, E.D., Mucke, L., 2006. 100 years and counting: prospects for defeating Alzheimer’s disease. Science 314, 781–784.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vokrouhlický, D., Nesvorný, D., Bottke, W.F., 2003. The vector alignments of asteroid spins by thermal torques. Nature 425, 147–151.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Escrig, S., Capmas, F., Dupré, B., Allègre, C.J., 2004. Osmium isotopic constraints on the nature of the DUPAL anomaly from Indian mid-ocean-ridge basalts. Nature 431, 59–63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chowdhury, S., 2016. Optimization and Business Improvement Studies in Upstream Oil and Gas Industry. John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Camarinha-Matos, L.M., Tomic, S., Graça, P. (Eds.), 2013. Technological Innovation for the Internet of Things: 4th IFIP WG 5.5/SOCOLNET Doctoral Conference on Computing, Electrical and Industrial Systems, DoCEIS 2013, Costa de Caparica, Portugal, April 15-17, 2013. Proceedings, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Dragomirescu, H., Filip, F.G., 2008. The Knowledge Society Agenda in Romania: From Experts’ Vision to Public Perception, in: Lytras, M.D., Carroll, J.M., Damiani, E., Tennyson, R.D., Avison, D., Vossen, G., Ordonez De Pablos, P. (Eds.), The Open Knowlege Society. A Computer Science and Information Systems Manifesto: First World Summit on the Knowledge Society, WSKS 2008, Athens, Greece, September 24-26, 2008. Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 24–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Behavior and Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Only One Person In History Has Ever Been Cured Of HIV. How Did It Happen? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. Should the Bureau of Indian Affairs Continue To Provide Educational Services to Indian Children? (No. CED-80-72). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graham, H.H., 2010. Leadership as co-influencing: A heuristic narrative study of dynamic co-emergence within the leadership relationship (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M.M., 2013. Your Earrings Remind Me of Grandma’s Gran Torino. New York Times AU7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Myhre, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Myhre, 2009; Roberson and Mucke, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roberson and Mucke, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Escrig et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Behavior and Immunity
AbbreviationBrain Behav. Immun.
ISSN (print)0889-1591
Behavioral Neuroscience
Endocrine and Autonomic Systems

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