How to format your references using the Brain Behavior and Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Behavior and Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo, E., 2002. Biodefence research. Nature 416, 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Billinge, S.J.L., Levin, I., 2007. The problem with determining atomic structure at the nanoscale. Science 316, 561–565.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Y.V., Ni, J., Montell, C., 2013. The molecular basis for attractive salt-taste coding in Drosophila. Science 340, 1334–1338.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bloom, J.S., Giannios, D., Metzger, B.D., Cenko, S.B., Perley, D.A., Butler, N.R., Tanvir, N.R., Levan, A.J., O’Brien, P.T., Strubbe, L.E., De Colle, F., Ramirez-Ruiz, E., Lee, W.H., Nayakshin, S., Quataert, E., King, A.R., Cucchiara, A., Guillochon, J., Bower, G.C., Fruchter, A.S., Morgan, A.N., van der Horst, A.J., 2011. A possible relativistic jetted outburst from a massive black hole fed by a tidally disrupted star. Science 333, 203–206.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hermans, J., Lentz, B., 2013. Equilibria and Kinetics of Biological Macromolecules. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Giddings, L.-A., 2015. Bioactive Compounds from Extremophiles: Genomic Studies, Biosynthetic Gene Clusters, and New Dereplication Methods, SpringerBriefs in Microbiology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, P., Xu, J., Lin, Z., Xu, D., Mao, B., Liu, P., 2015. A Practical Approach for Adaptive Data Structure Layout Randomization, in: Pernul, G., Y A Ryan, P., Weippl, E. (Eds.), Computer Security -- ESORICS 2015: 20th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Vienna, Austria, September 21-25, 2015, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 69–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Behavior and Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. What Happened To MH370? Prediction Markets Might Give Us The Answer [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Preliminary Observations on the Potential Effects of the Proposed Performance Rights Act on the Recording and Broadcast Radio Industries (No. GAO-10-428R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Virchez Azuara, A., 2015. A human resource perspective on the development of workforce agility (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., Maheshwari, S., 2017. Eyes Drift. Marketers Stick to TV. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russo, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Billinge and Levin, 2007; Russo, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Billinge and Levin, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Bloom et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Behavior and Immunity
AbbreviationBrain Behav. Immun.
ISSN (print)0889-1591
Behavioral Neuroscience
Endocrine and Autonomic Systems

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