How to format your references using the Brain Behavior and Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Behavior and Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kellermann, K.I., 2003. Obituary: Grote Reber (1911-2002). Nature 421, 596.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lattimer, J.M., Prakash, M., 2004. The physics of neutron stars. Science 304, 536–542.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ackerman, J.M., Nocera, C.C., Bargh, J.A., 2010. Incidental haptic sensations influence social judgments and decisions. Science 328, 1712–1715.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wei, H., Wei, S., Tian, W., Zhu, D., Liu, Y., Yuan, L., Li, X., 2014. Fabrication of thickness controllable free-standing sandwich-structured hybrid carbon film for high-rate and high-power supercapacitor. Sci. Rep. 4, 7050.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Di Stefano, M., 2005. Distributed Data Management for Grid Computing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Catania, B., Ivanović, M., Thalheim, B. (Eds.), 2010. Advances in Databases and Information Systems: 14th East European Conference, ADBIS 2010, Novi Sad, Serbia, September 20-24, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Tremblay, V.J., Tremblay, C.H., 2012. Behavioral Economics, in: Tremblay, C.H. (Ed.), New Perspectives on Industrial Organization: With Contributions from Behavioral Economics and Game Theory, Springer Texts in Business and Economics. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 101–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Behavior and Immunity.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Sound Waves Break The Blood-Brain Barrier [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Recovery Act: States’ Use of Highway and Transit Funds and Efforts to Meet the Act’s Requirements (No. GAO-10-312T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yuan, J., 2008. Membrane Protein Insertion in Bacteria by the YidC and Sec Pathway (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2007. Georgia: Ex-Minister Arrested After Assailing President. New York Times A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kellermann, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kellermann, 2003; Lattimer and Prakash, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lattimer and Prakash, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Wei et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Behavior and Immunity
AbbreviationBrain Behav. Immun.
ISSN (print)0889-1591
Behavioral Neuroscience
Endocrine and Autonomic Systems

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