How to format your references using the Brain Behavior and Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain Behavior and Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clack, J.A., 2015. Evolutionary biology: The origin of terrestrial hearing. Nature 519, 168–169.
A journal article with 2 authors
Catterall, W.A., Scott, J.D., 2010. Retrospective. Edwin G. Krebs (1918-2009). Science 327, 537.
A journal article with 3 authors
Christian, W., Esquembre, F., Barbato, L., 2011. SPORE series winner. Open source physics. Science 334, 1077–1078.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Foster, K.L., Plastridge, R.A., Bottenheim, J.W., Shepson, P.B., Finlayson-Pitts, B.J., Spicer, C.W., 2001. The role of Br2 and BrCl in surface ozone destruction at polar sunrise. Science 291, 471–474.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Free, M.L., 2015. CBT and Christianity. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Griffiths, N., Chao, K.-M. (Eds.), 2010. Agent-Based Service-Oriented Computing, Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Nanda, S., 2011. Variational Inequality and Complementarity Problem, in: Mishra, S.K. (Ed.), Topics in Nonconvex Optimization: Theory and Applications, Springer Optimization and Its Applications. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain Behavior and Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. Turkish Lake Has Turned Blood Red [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. Question Concerning Whether Funds Available Under Career Education Incentive Act Were Illegally Rescinded (No. B-200769). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen, X.S., 2017. Social Support Communication Behavior, Anxiety Symptomatology, and Marital Satisfaction Among Distressed Couples (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Hollander, S., 2000. Stevenson Also Seeking Maturity. New York Times D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clack, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Catterall and Scott, 2010; Clack, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Catterall and Scott, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Foster et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain Behavior and Immunity
AbbreviationBrain Behav. Immun.
ISSN (print)0889-1591
Behavioral Neuroscience
Endocrine and Autonomic Systems

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