How to format your references using the Geosystem Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geosystem Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Inan, U. (2005). Atmospheric science. Gamma rays made on Earth. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5712), 1054–1055.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hilf, R. J. C., & Dutzler, R. (2008). X-ray structure of a prokaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channel. Nature, 452(7185), 375–379.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smallman, H. S., MacLeod, D. I., & Doyle, P. (2001). Vision. Realignment of cones after cataract removal. Nature, 412(6847), 604–605.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Moraru, D., Samanta, A., Anh, L. T., Mizuno, T., Mizuta, H., & Tabe, M. (2014). Transport spectroscopy of coupled donors in silicon nano-transistors. Scientific Reports, 4, 6219.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Haginomori, E., Koshiduka, T., Arai, J., & Ikeda, H. (2016). Power System Transient Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Loue, S. (Ed.). (2013). Expressive Therapies for Sexual Issues: A Social Work Perspective. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin, C. Y.-Y., & Edvinsson, L. (2011). National Intellectual Capital of Four Larger Western European Countries (France, Germany, Ireland, UK). In L. Edvinsson (Ed.), National Intellectual Capital: A Comparison of 40 Countries (pp. 63–85). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geosystem Engineering.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016, December 27). Snow Fell In The Sahara For The First Time In 37 Years. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Secret Service Has More Computer Capacity Than It Needs (GGD-81-43). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lucas, W. A. (2017). Dynamics of Food Consumption in a Q’eqchi’ Maya Community [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2016, May 17). A Carnival of Consciousness. New York Times, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Inan, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hilf & Dutzler, 2008; Inan, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hilf & Dutzler, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Smallman et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Moraru et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeosystem Engineering
ISSN (print)1226-9328
ISSN (online)2166-3394
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Waste Management and Disposal

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