How to format your references using the Geosystem Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geosystem Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Solomon, S. C. (2007). Planetary science. Hot news on Mercury’s core. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5825), 702–703.
A journal article with 2 authors
Akiyama, T., & Gibson, M. C. (2015). Decapentaplegic and growth control in the developing Drosophila wing. Nature, 527(7578), 375–378.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conway, S. L., Shinbrot, T., & Glasser, B. J. (2004). A Taylor vortex analogy in granular flows. Nature, 431(7007), 433–437.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gao, Z., Liu, H.-L., Daxinger, L., Pontes, O., He, X., Qian, W., Lin, H., Xie, M., Lorkovic, Z. J., Zhang, S., Miki, D., Zhan, X., Pontier, D., Lagrange, T., Jin, H., Matzke, A. J. M., Matzke, M., Pikaard, C. S., & Zhu, J.-K. (2010). An RNA polymerase II- and AGO4-associated protein acts in RNA-directed DNA methylation. Nature, 465(7294), 106–109.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson, A. (2014). Small Animal Pathology for Veterinary Technicians. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mohammad, A. (Ed.). (2012). Green Solvents I: Properties and Applications in Chemistry. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Adinarayanan, V., Rekha, V. S., & Sooryanarayan, D. G. (2016). A Multidimensional View of Leadership from an Indian Perspective. In M. Chatterji & L. Zsolnai (Eds.), Ethical Leadership: Indian and European Spiritual Approaches (pp. 71–84). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geosystem Engineering.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, May 2). DNA GPS Maps Where Your Ancestors Lived. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Commercial Space: FAA Should Examine How to Appropriately Regulate Space Support Vehicles (GAO-17-100). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hsieh, H.-C. (2010). Self-access center and autonomous learning: EFL college students’ motivations, activities and perceptions of learning effectiveness [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S. M. (2015, May 8). Behind Perfect Nails, Ailing Salon Workers. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Solomon, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Akiyama & Gibson, 2015; Solomon, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Akiyama & Gibson, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Conway et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gao et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeosystem Engineering
ISSN (print)1226-9328
ISSN (online)2166-3394
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Waste Management and Disposal

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