How to format your references using the Geosystem Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geosystem Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Folbre, N. (2008). Economics. When a commodity is not exactly a commodity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5871), 1769–1770.
A journal article with 2 authors
Royer, S., & Paré, D. (2003). Conservation of total synaptic weight through balanced synaptic depression and potentiation. Nature, 422(6931), 518–522.
A journal article with 3 authors
Unal, E., Heidinger-Pauli, J. M., & Koshland, D. (2007). DNA double-strand breaks trigger genome-wide sister-chromatid cohesion through Eco1 (Ctf7). Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5835), 245–248.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim, K. H., Yang, M., Cho, K. M., Jun, Y.-S., Lee, S. B., & Jung, H.-T. (2013). High quality reduced graphene oxide through repairing with multi-layered graphene ball nanostructures. Scientific Reports, 3, 3251.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aldridge, P., & O’Dwyer, L. (2013). Practical Emergency and Critical Care Veterinary Nursing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Agoulnik, A. I. (Ed.). (2007). Relaxin and Related Peptides (Vol. 612). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Nekorkin, V. I., Dmitrichev, A. S., & Kasatkin, D. V. (2015). Reducing the Sequential Dynamics of Excitatory Neural Networks to Synaptic Cellular Automata. In H. González-Aguilar & E. Ugalde (Eds.), Nonlinear Dynamics New Directions: Models and Applications (pp. 111–127). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geosystem Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 19). Why A Pill To Prevent HIV Is Causing Great Controversy. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Opportunity To Improve Indian Education in Schools Operated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (B-161468). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Xiong, Y. (2008). Immuno-Magnetic T Cell Depletion for Allogeneic Hematological Stem Cell Transplantation [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2013, July 4). His Mission: Beat Swords Into Baubles. New York Times, E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Folbre, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Folbre, 2008; Royer & Paré, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Royer & Paré, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Unal et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kim et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeosystem Engineering
ISSN (print)1226-9328
ISSN (online)2166-3394
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Waste Management and Disposal

Other styles