How to format your references using the Joule citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Joule. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Pollard TD. Genomics, the cytoskeleton and motility. Nature 2001;409:842–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Satpute-Krishnan P, Serio TR. Prion protein remodelling confers an immediate phenotypic switch. Nature 2005;437:262–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Richardson JE, Melosh HJ, Greenberg R. Impact-induced seismic activity on asteroid 433 Eros: a surface modification process. Science 2004;306:1526–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Greene E, Lyon BE, Muehter VR, Ratcliffe L, Oliver SJ, Boag PT. Disruptive sexual selection for plumage coloration in a passerine bird. Nature 2000;407:1000–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Anandharamakrishnan C, Ishwarya SP. Spray Drying Techniques for Food Ingredient Encapsulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
[1]
De Gloria A, editor. Games and Learning Alliance: Third International Conference, GALA 2014, Bucharest, Romania, July 2-4, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 9221. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Calafiore GC, Carlone L, Dellaert F. Lagrangian Duality in Complex Pose Graph Optimization. In: Goldengorin B, editor. Optimization and Its Applications in Control and Data Sciences: In Honor of Boris T. Polyak’s 80th Birthday, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 139–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Joule.

Blog post
[1]
Luntz S. Antibody Drug Gives New Life To Chronic Fatigue Sufferers. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/cancer-drug-gives-new-life-chronic-fatigue-sufferers/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Procedures for Updating Arbitrator Disclosure Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Usborne EL. Sediment and phosphorus dynamics behind weirs in agricultural drainage ditches. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Crow K. Taming the Biblical Plagues Of Mud and Frogs at a Meadow. New York Times 2002:146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJoule
AbbreviationJoule
ISSN (print)2542-4351
Scope

Other styles