How to format your references using the Joule citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Joule. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow JM. Psoriasis uncovered. Nature 2012;492:S50-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsuji K, Tsutani K. Follow the leader. Nature 2008;453:851–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu DW-L, Bischof WF, Kingstone A. Looking while eating: the importance of social context to social attention. Sci Rep 2013;3:2356.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Grueninger D, Treiber N, Ziegler MOP, Koetter JWA, Schulze M-S, Schulz GE. Designed protein-protein association. Science 2008;319:206–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schuenemeyer JH, Drew LJ. Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Deng Z, Li H, editors. Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference: Intelligent Automation. vol. 337. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Omosebi A, Besser RS. Nanotechnology Innovations for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells for Micro Autonomous Systems. In: Guo Y, editor. Selected Topics in Micro/Nano-robotics for Biomedical Applications, New York, NY: Springer; 2013, p. 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Joule.

Blog post
Davis J. U.K. Suspends Ban On Controversial Pesticide Linked To Decline In Bee Populations. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security: Measure of Telephone Service Accuracy Can Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Qian J. Characterization of Transcription-independent APC Tumor Suppressor Function in Apoptosis. Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haigney S. Roman Polanski Is Accused of Rape by a Former Actress. New York Times 2017:C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJoule
ISSN (print)2542-4351

Other styles