How to format your references using the Joule citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Joule. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Krammer PH. CD95’s deadly mission in the immune system. Nature 2000;407:789–95.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ohman MD, Hirche HJ. Density-dependent mortality in an oceanic copepod population. Nature 2001;412:638–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blüher M, Kahn BB, Kahn CR. Extended longevity in mice lacking the insulin receptor in adipose tissue. Science 2003;299:572–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Religa P, Cao R, Religa D, Xue Y, Bogdanovic N, Westaway D, et al. VEGF significantly restores impaired memory behavior in Alzheimer’s mice by improvement of vascular survival. Sci Rep 2013;3:2053.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stein RL. Kinetics of Enzyme Action. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Allaire G. Quantum Transport: Modelling, Analysis and Asymptotics — Lectures given at the C.I.M.E. Summer School held in Cetraro, Italy September 11–16, 2006. vol. 1946. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Panin I. Purity for multipliers. In: Tandon R, editor. Algebra and Number Theory: Proceedings of the Silver Jubilee Conference University of Hyderabad, Gurgaon: Hindustan Book Agency; 2005, p. 66–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Joule.

Blog post
Andrew D. This Largely Unknown Condition Puts One Million People In The Hospital Each Year. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Explosives Detection Canines: TSA Has Enhanced Its Canine Program, but Opportunities May Exist to Reduce Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith JM. (Un)Working Binaries, (Un)Doing Privilege: Narratives of Teachers Who Make Safe Spaces for LGBTQ Students. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Grammy Awards Gain a Million More Viewers. New York Times 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJoule
ISSN (print)2542-4351

Other styles