How to format your references using the Joule citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Joule. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Schnitzer MJ. Biological computation: amazing algorithms. Nature 2002;416:683.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Knaden M, Hansson BS. Neuroscience. Specialized but flexible. Science 2013;339:151–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
McNally A, Prier CK, MacMillan DWC. Discovery of an α-amino C-H arylation reaction using the strategy of accelerated serendipity. Science 2011;334:1114–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Matsumoto K, Yoshitomi H, Rossant J, Zaret KS. Liver organogenesis promoted by endothelial cells prior to vascular function. Science 2001;294:559–63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Woolf G. Tales of the Barbarians. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
[1]
Forsmark CE, Gardner TB, editors. Prediction and Management of Severe Acute Pancreatitis. New York, NY: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Weicht B. State, Market, or Back to the Family? Nostalgic Struggles for Proper Elder Care. In: Karner C, Weicht B, editors. The Commonalities of Global Crises: Markets, Communities and Nostalgia, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016, p. 115–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Joule.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Lyme Disease: A Ticking Time Bomb. IFLScience 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Initiatives to Reduce Flight Delays and Enhance Capacity are Ongoing but Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Li X. Graph-based learning for information systems. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Hollander S. Rutgers Women Find Rhythm For 4th Straight Victory. New York Times 1999:D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJoule
AbbreviationJoule
ISSN (print)2542-4351
Scope

Other styles