How to format your references using the International Journal of Lifelong Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Lifelong Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fertig, H. A. (2003). Physics. Spinning holes in semiconductors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5638), 1335–1336.
A journal article with 2 authors
Habibi, M. K., & Lu, Y. (2014). Crack propagation in bamboo’s hierarchical cellular structure. Scientific Reports, 4, 5598.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, F. G., Davies, R., & Lyne, A. (2012). Bernard Lovell (1913-2012). Nature, 488(7413), 592.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Albrecht, C., Blank, K., Lalic-Mülthaler, M., Hirler, S., Mai, T., Gilbert, I., Schiffmann, S., Bayer, T., Clausen-Schaumann, H., & Gaub, H. E. (2003). DNA: a programmable force sensor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5631), 367–370.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kurimoto, N., Fielding, D. I. K., & Musani, A. I. (2011). Endobronchial Ultrasonography. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Herout, A. (2013). Real-Time Detection of Lines and Grids: By PClines and Other Approaches (M. Dubská & J. Havel, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fushimi, T., Satoh, T., Saito, K., Kazama, K., & Kando, N. (2016). Content Centrality Measure for Networks: Introducing Distance-Based Decay Weights. In E. Spiro & Y.-Y. Ahn (Eds.), Social Informatics: 8th International Conference, SocInfo 2016, Bellevue, WA, USA, November 11-14, 2016, Proceedings, Part II (pp. 40–54). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Lifelong Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 16). Common Drugs Can Affect Our Minds And Morals – But Should We Be Worried About It? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). HHS Ability To Effectively Implement Incentive Funding for State Information Systems in the Aid to Families With Dependent Children Program (HRD-81-119). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhao, J. (2012). Contextual Differential Item Functioning: Examining the Validity of Teaching Self-Efficacy Instruments Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (2000, September 1). Hard Feelings. New York Times, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fertig, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Fertig, 2003; Habibi & Lu, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Habibi & Lu, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Smith et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Albrecht et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Lifelong Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Lifelong Educ.
ISSN (print)0260-1370
ISSN (online)1464-519X
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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