How to format your references using the International Journal of Lifelong Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Lifelong Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Engelman, D. M. (2005). Membranes are more mosaic than fluid. Nature, 438(7068), 578–580.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roediger, H. L., 3rd, & McDermott, K. B. (2011). Neuroscience. Remember when? Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6038), 47–48.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, J. B., Park, C., & Seoul National University Investigation Committee. (2006). Molecular genetics: verification that Snuppy is a clone. Nature, 440(7081), E2-3.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zheng, Y., Ren, H., Wan, W., & Chen, X. (2013). Time-reversed wave mixing in nonlinear optics. Scientific Reports, 3, 3245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pardoux, É. (2008). Markov Processes and Applications: Algorithms, Networks, Genome and Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Jadvar, H. (2005). Clinical PET and PET/CT (J. A. Parker, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gschwandtner, M., & Uhl, A. (2009). Protected Progressive Meshes. In G. Bebis, R. Boyle, B. Parvin, D. Koracin, Y. Kuno, J. Wang, R. Pajarola, P. Lindstrom, A. Hinkenjann, M. L. Encarnação, C. T. Silva, & D. Coming (Eds.), Advances in Visual Computing: 5th International Symposium, ISVC 2009, Las Vegas, NV, USA, November 30-December 2, 2009. Proceedings, Part II (pp. 35–48). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Lifelong Education.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, October 11). Are We Sleeping Less Than We Used To? Here Are The Facts. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Multiyear Authorizations for Research and Development (PAD-81-61). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mueck, K. (2017). Physiology of the Invasive Apple Snail, Pomacea maculata (Perry, 1810), in Louisiana [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S. (2017, June 24). Jobs Men Don’t Want. New York Times, SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Engelman, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Engelman, 2005; Roediger & McDermott, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roediger & McDermott, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Lee et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zheng et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Lifelong Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Lifelong Educ.
ISSN (print)0260-1370
ISSN (online)1464-519X
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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