How to format your references using the International Journal of Lifelong Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Lifelong Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chang, H. Y. (2009). Anatomic demarcation of cells: genes to patterns. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5957), 1206–1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Palfrey, J., & Zittrain, J. (2011). Information science. Better data for a better Internet. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6060), 1210–1211.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, M. C., O’Rourke, E. J., & Ruvkun, G. (2008). Fat metabolism links germline stem cells and longevity in C. elegans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5903), 957–960.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Murakami, S., Nakashima, R., Yamashita, E., & Yamaguchi, A. (2002). Crystal structure of bacterial multidrug efflux transporter AcrB. Nature, 419(6907), 587–593.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svrcek, W. Y., Mahoney, D. P., & Young, B. R. (2007). A Real-Time Approach to Process Control. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gheorghe, A., & Muresan, L. (Eds.). (2011). Energy Security: International and Local Issues, Theoretical Perspectives, and Critical Energy Infrastructures. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Chebanov, D. (2016). On the Problem of Similar Motions of a Chain of Coupled Heavy Rigid Bodies. In J. Bélair, I. A. Frigaard, H. Kunze, R. Makarov, R. Melnik, & R. J. Spiteri (Eds.), Mathematical and Computational Approaches in Advancing Modern Science and Engineering (pp. 47–57). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Lifelong Education.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, July 31). Dinosaurs Shrank Continuously for 50 Million Years. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Energy and Science Reports and Testimony: 1992 (No. RCED-93-131). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bladen, L. (2014). Relationship of Embodied Nursing Knowledge and Client Outcomes in Home Health (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2005, November 8). Two Convicts From Abroad Win Hearing By Justices. New York Times, p. A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chang, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Chang, 2009; Palfrey & Zittrain, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Palfrey & Zittrain, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Wang, O’Rourke, & Ruvkun, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Murakami, Nakashima, Yamashita, & Yamaguchi, 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Lifelong Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Lifelong Educ.
ISSN (print)0260-1370
ISSN (online)1464-519X
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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