How to format your references using the International Journal of Lifelong Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Lifelong Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lavé, J. (2015). Earth science: Landscape inversion by stream piracy. Nature, 520(7548), 442–444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, B., & Cao, C. (2015). Policy: Four gaps in China’s new environmental law. Nature, 517(7535), 433–434.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tang, Z., Kotov, N. A., & Giersig, M. (2002). Spontaneous organization of single CdTe nanoparticles into luminescent nanowires. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5579), 237–240.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Morton, G. J., Cummings, D. E., Baskin, D. G., Barsh, G. S., & Schwartz, M. W. (2006). Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight. Nature, 443(7109), 289–295.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brigo, D., Morini, M., & Pallavicini, A. (2013). Counterparty Credit Risk, Collateral and Funding. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Griebel, M., & Schweitzer, M. A. (Eds.). (2013). Meshfree Methods for Partial Differential Equations VI (Vol. 89). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lucas, J. C., Schroeder, D., Chennells, R., Chaturvedi, S., & Feinholz, D. (2013). Sharing Traditional Knowledge: Who benefits? Cases from India, Nigeria, Mexico and South Africa. In D. Schroeder & J. Cook Lucas (Eds.), Benefit Sharing: From Biodiversity to Human Genetics (pp. 65–93). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Lifelong Education.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, February 26). Mathematicians Work Out Zombie Apocalypse Plan. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). D.C. Charter Schools: Strengthening Monitoring and Process When Schools Close Could Improve Accountability and Ease Student Transitions (GAO-06-73). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knight, M. (2012). Technological Advancement in Conflict Assessment: A Case Study of the Fund for Peace’s Universal Network of Local Knowledge in Liberia [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis, G. (2012, September 25). Phantasmagoric Glimpses of Beauty Amid All of the Messiness. New York Times, 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lavé, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Lavé, 2015; Zhang & Cao, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang & Cao, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Tang et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Morton et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Lifelong Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Lifelong Educ.
ISSN (print)0260-1370
ISSN (online)1464-519X
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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