How to format your references using the European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rocha B. Comment on “Thymic origin of intestinal alphabeta T cells revealed by fate mapping of RORgammat+ cells.” Science. 2005 Jun 10;308(5728):1553; author reply 1553.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stephenson NL, Das AJ. Comment on “Changes in climatic water balance drive downhill shifts in plant species’ optimum elevations.” Science. 2011 Oct 14;334(6053):177; author reply 177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson JS, Rittle J, Peters JC. Catalytic conversion of nitrogen to ammonia by an iron model complex. Nature. 2013 Sep 5;501(7465):84–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stockem A, Fiuza F, Bret A, Fonseca RA, Silva LO. Exploring the nature of collisionless shocks under laboratory conditions. Sci. Rep. 2014 Feb 3;4:3934.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wesley LD. Geotechnical Engineering in Residual Soils. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Holden H. Stochastic Partial Differential Equations: A Modeling, White Noise Functional Approach. Øksendal B, Ubøe J, Zhang T, editors. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Connor MJ, Oommen A. Clinical Pearls: Non-dialytic Management of Kidney Complications in the Postoperative Period. In: Thakar CV, Parikh CR, editors. Perioperative Kidney Injury: Principles of Risk Assessment, Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, NY: Springer; 2015. p. 53–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry.

Blog post
Luntz S. Exploding Stars Prove Gravity Constant Over The Last 9 Billion Years [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control System: Selected Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Operations, Modernization, and Structure. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Sep. Report No.: GAO-14-770.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carter KE. The use of boron-doped diamond film electrodes for the oxidative degradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate and trichloroethylene [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dwyer J. Cruz’s Jab at Trump, and the Politics of Hypocrisy. New York Times. 2016 Jan 15;A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rocha 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Rocha 2005; Stephenson and Das 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stephenson and Das 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Stockem et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Archives of Paediatric Dentistry
AbbreviationEur. Arch. Paediatr. Dent.
ISSN (print)1818-6300
ISSN (online)1996-9805
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Dentistry (miscellaneous)

Other styles