How to format your references using the European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lenski RE. Genetics and evolution. Come fly, and leave the baggage behind. Science. 2001 Oct 19;294(5542):533–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berry A, Browne J. The other beetle-hunter. Nature. 2008 Jun 26;453(7199):1188–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Capozza R, Barel I, Urbakh M. Probing and tuning frictional aging at the nanoscale. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:1896.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Svetovoy VB, Sanders RGP, Ma K, Elwenspoek MC. New type of microengine using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen. Sci. Rep. 2014 Mar 6;4:4296.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rao CL, Narayanamurthy V, Simha KRY. Applied Impact Mechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Fegan J, Field MH, editors. Education Across Borders: Politics, Policy and Legislative Action. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Bünger M. Information and Imagination: How Lux Research Forecasts. In: Fisher E, Selin C, Wetmore JM, editors. Presenting Futures. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. p. 71–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry.

Blog post
Andrew D. People With Creative Personalities Really Do See The World Differently [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement: Management Oversight of Contract Costs and Time Changes Could Be Enhanced. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Sep. Report No.: NSIAD-91-259.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Calhoun GF. Limit theory for overfit models [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Van Gelder SKC by L. Arts, Briefly; Russia: Happy Birthday, Maya. New York Times. 2005 Nov 17;E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lenski 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Berry and Browne 2008; Lenski 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berry and Browne 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Svetovoy et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Archives of Paediatric Dentistry
AbbreviationEur. Arch. Paediatr. Dent.
ISSN (print)1818-6300
ISSN (online)1996-9805
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Dentistry (miscellaneous)

Other styles