How to format your references using the Evidence-Based Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evidence-Based Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegel JS. Materials chemistry: carbon origami. Nature 2012;486:327–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cuthbertson JD, MacMillan DWC. The direct arylation of allylic sp(3) C-H bonds via organic and photoredox catalysis. Nature 2015;519:74–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang K, Mittler JE, Samudrala R. Comment on ‘Evidence for positive epistasis in HIV-1’. Science 2006;312:848; author reply 848.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bonifacie M, Jendrzejewski N, Agrinier P, et al. The chlorine isotope composition of Earth’s mantle. Science 2008;319:1518–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lu M. Arithmetic and Logic in Computer Systems. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005.
An edited book
Liu G, Yang C, Hao T, et al., editors. Oil and Gas Resources in China: A Roadmap to 2050. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Rao RV, Savsani VJ. Applications of Modified Optimization Algorithms to the Unconstrained and Constrained Problems. In: Savsani VJ, ed. Mechanical Design Optimization Using Advanced Optimization Techniques. London: : Springer 2012. 69–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evidence-Based Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew E. Want More Innovation? Try Connecting The Dots Between Engineering And Humanities. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Effects of Changes in the Telecommunications Industry on FCC Operations. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peterson DG. An application of geotechnical techniques to quantitative regional slope stability analysis San Clemente, California. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Strauss B. Knicks’ Rose May Be in Court, Not on It, When Team Begins Preseason. New York Times. 2016;:B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEvidence-Based Nursing
AbbreviationEvid. Based. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1367-6539
ISSN (online)1468-9618
ScopeFundamentals and skills

Other styles