How to format your references using the Evidence-Based Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evidence-Based Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deary I. Why do intelligent people live longer? Nature 2008;456:175–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gottesman S, Maurizi MR. Cell biology. Surviving starvation. Science 2001;293:614–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blundy J, Cashman K, Humphreys M. Magma heating by decompression-driven crystallization beneath andesite volcanoes. Nature 2006;443:76–80.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang X, Xiao L, Shan X, et al. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of shale gas transport in organic nano-pores. Sci Rep 2014;4:4843.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jaitly R. Practical Operational Due Diligence on Hedge Funds. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2016.
An edited book
Hübel A. Biopatent Law: Patent Strategies and Patent Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Reussner R, Becker S. Model-Based Software Development with Eclipse. In: Hofmeister C, Crnkovic I, Reussner R, eds. Quality of Software Architectures: Second International Conference on Quality of Software Architectures, QoSA 2006, Västerås, Sweden, June 27-29, 2006 Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2006. 5–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evidence-Based Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew D. Sad But Adorable Animal Facts That Will Ruin Your Day. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Digital Television Transition: Preliminary Information on Progress of the DTV Transition. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wei C-S. Towards Brain Decoding for Real-World Drowsiness Detection. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick SM. Satisfying the Sweet (and Savory) Tooth. New York Times. 2016;:LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEvidence-Based Nursing
AbbreviationEvid. Based. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1367-6539
ISSN (online)1468-9618
ScopeFundamentals and skills

Other styles