How to format your references using the Evidence-Based Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evidence-Based Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fauci AS. Race against time. Nature 2005;435:423–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yoo BC, Lubec G. p25 protein in neurodegeneration. Nature 2001;411:763–4; discussion 764-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zenisek D, Steyer JA, Almers W. Transport, capture and exocytosis of single synaptic vesicles at active zones. Nature 2000;406:849–54.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Weijers JWH, Schefuss E, Schouten S, et al. Coupled thermal and hydrological evolution of tropical Africa over the last deglaciation. Science 2007;315:1701–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crane S. Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Dao. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2013.
An edited book
Martin J. Persons: Understanding Psychological Selfhood and Agency. New York, NY: : Springer 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Wei Z. The USA and Challenges to East Asia’s Security Order. In: Arase D, ed. China’s Rise and Changing Order in East Asia. New York, NY: : Palgrave Macmillan US 2016. 89–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evidence-Based Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Does The Discovery Of Liquid Salty Water On Mars Mean For The Search For Life? IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Interim Report on the Small Business Innovation Research Program. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kehoe MI. Tobacco control: A qualitative assessment of the perceptions and practices of nurse practitioners. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey M, Walsh MW. Detroit Reaches Deal With Creditor, as Others Object to Bankruptcy Plans. New York Times. 2014;:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEvidence-Based Nursing
AbbreviationEvid. Based. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1367-6539
ISSN (online)1468-9618
ScopeFundamentals and skills

Other styles