How to format your references using the International Journal of Leadership in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Leadership in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gravitz, L. (2014). Therapy: This time it’s personal. Nature, 509(7502), S52-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chittka, L., & Peng, F. (2013). Neuroscience. Caffeine boosts bees’ memories. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6124), 1157–1159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shim, S.-B., Imboden, M., & Mohanty, P. (2007). Synchronized oscillation in coupled nanomechanical oscillators. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5821), 95–99.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Simmons, N. B., Seymour, K. L., Habersetzer, J., & Gunnell, G. F. (2008). Primitive Early Eocene bat from Wyoming and the evolution of flight and echolocation. Nature, 451(7180), 818–821.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rizzi, T. E., Valenciano, A., Bowles, M., Cowell, R., Tyler, R., & DeNicola, D. B. (2017). Atlas of Canine and Feline Urinalysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sasano, T., & Suzuki, O. (Eds.). (2010). Interface Oral Health Science 2009. Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Russo, V., Marchisio, M., Pierdomenico, L., Barboni, B., Ioannoni, A., Valbonetti, L., Muttini, A., Di Giacinto, O., Nardinocchi, D., Mauro, A., Martelli, A., Peli, R., & Berardinelli, P. (2012). Sheep Calcaneal Tendon Repair Subsequent to Amniotic-Derived Stem Cell Allotransplantation. In A. Pugliese, A. Gaiti, & C. Boiti (Eds.), Veterinary Science: Current Aspects in Biology, Animal Pathology, Clinic and Food Hygiene (pp. 27–32). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Leadership in Education.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, December 2). How Trauma Early In Life Influences Later Behavior. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Flexibility Demonstration Programs: Education Needs to Better Target Program Information (GAO-03-691). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Claar, P. L. (2017). A Correlational Study Comparing the Relationship between School Leader Intercultural Development, Selected Demographic Variables, and Student Achievement [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2013, January 20). Texas Film: It’s Not Just About Slackers Anymore. New York Times, A27B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gravitz, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Chittka & Peng, 2013; Gravitz, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chittka & Peng, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Shim et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Simmons et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Leadership in Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Lead.. Educ.
ISSN (print)1360-3124
ISSN (online)1464-5092
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Strategy and Management

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