How to format your references using the International Journal of Leadership in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Leadership in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson, D. (2000). UK ethicists back use of stem cells. Nature, 404(6779), 697.
A journal article with 2 authors
Birch, J. M., & Dickinson, M. H. (2001). Spanwise flow and the attachment of the leading-edge vortex on insect wings. Nature, 412(6848), 729–733.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yanagisawa, S., Yoo, S.-D., & Sheen, J. (2003). Differential regulation of EIN3 stability by glucose and ethylene signalling in plants. Nature, 425(6957), 521–525.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pryor, W. R., Rymer, A. M., Mitchell, D. G., Hill, T. W., Young, D. T., Saur, J., Jones, G. H., Jacobsen, S., Cowley, S. W. H., Mauk, B. H., Coates, A. J., Gustin, J., Grodent, D., Gérard, J.-C., Lamy, L., Nichols, J. D., Krimigis, S. M., Esposito, L. W., Dougherty, M. K., … Zhou, X. (2011). The auroral footprint of Enceladus on Saturn. Nature, 472(7343), 331–333.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kenett, R. S., Zacks, S., & Amberti, D. (2013). Modern Industrial Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zsolnai, L., Boda, Z., & Fekete, L. (Eds.). (2009). Ethical Prospects: Economy, Society, and Environment (1st ed.). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Nesterenko, M. V., Katrich, V. A., Penkin, Y. M., Dakhov, V. M., & Berdnik, S. L. (2011). Generalized Method of Induced EMF for Investigation of the Characteristics of Impedance Vibrators. In V. A. Katrich, Y. M. Penkin, V. M. Dakhov, & S. L. Berdnik (Eds.), Thin Impedance Vibrators: Theory and Applications (pp. 113–154). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Leadership in Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 18). Why You Shouldn’t Order Human Breast Milk For Adults Online. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Information Technology: Enterprise Architecture Use Across the Federal Government Can Be Improved (GAO-02-6). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cappiello, D. M. (2010). Minding the gap: Western export controls and soviet technology policy during the 1960s [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2017, September 5). An Ink-Stained Reunion After Years of Digital Upheaval. New York Times, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dickson, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Birch & Dickinson, 2001; Dickson, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Birch & Dickinson, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Yanagisawa et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Pryor et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Leadership in Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Lead.. Educ.
ISSN (print)1360-3124
ISSN (online)1464-5092
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Strategy and Management

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