How to format your references using the International Journal of Leadership in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Leadership in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoffert, M. (2011). Governments must pay for clean-energy innovation. Nature, 472(7342), 137.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bird, J. P., & Ochiai, Y. (2004). Physics. Electron spin polarization in nanoscale constrictions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5664), 1621–1622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz, W., Muttarak, R., & Striessnig, E. (2014). Environment and development. Universal education is key to enhanced climate adaptation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6213), 1061–1062.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Krockenberger, Y., Irie, H., Matsumoto, O., Yamagami, K., Mitsuhashi, M., Tsukada, A., Naito, M., & Yamamoto, H. (2013). Emerging superconductivity hidden beneath charge-transfer insulators. Scientific Reports, 3, 2235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bojar, R. M. (2010). Manual of Perioperative Care in Adult Cardiac Surgery. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Barnes, I., & Rudziński, K. J. (Eds.). (2013). Disposal of Dangerous Chemicals in Urban Areas and Mega Cities: Role of Oxides and Acids of Nitrogen in Atmospheric Chemistry. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Read, A., Hurwitz, I., & Durvasula, R. (2013). Leishmaniasis: An Update on a Neglected Tropical Disease. In V. S. H. Rao & R. Durvasula (Eds.), Dynamic Models of Infectious Diseases: Volume 1: Vector-Borne Diseases (pp. 95–138). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Leadership in Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, October 1). “Moonspike” Project Plans To Crash A Spacecraft Into The Lunar Surface. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Internet Protocol Transition: FCC Should Strengthen Its Data Collection Efforts to Assess the Transition’s Effects (GAO-16-167). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peng, E. (2017). Teaching and Coaching Brazilian Jiujitsu: An Instructional Manual [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2004, February 19). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Move For Life Terms For Terrorists. New York Times, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoffert, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Bird & Ochiai, 2004; Hoffert, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bird & Ochiai, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Lutz et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Krockenberger et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Leadership in Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Lead.. Educ.
ISSN (print)1360-3124
ISSN (online)1464-5092
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Strategy and Management

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