How to format your references using the International Journal of Innovation Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Innovation Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. (2003). Membrane proteins: channel voyager makes waves. Nature, 426(6968), 755.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wagner, E. F., & Petruzzelli, M. (2015). Cancer metabolism: A waste of insulin interference. Nature, 521(7553), 430–431.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Y. G., Pagani, M., & Liu, Z. (2014). A 12-million-year temperature history of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6179), 84–87.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wu, W.-Q., Rao, H.-S., Xu, Y.-F., Wang, Y.-F., Su, C.-Y., & Kuang, D.-B. (2013). Hierarchical oriented anatase TiO2 nanostructure arrays on flexible substrate for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Scientific Reports, 3, 1892.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saadoun, A. P. (2012). Esthetic Soft Tissue Management of Teeth and Implants. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.
An edited book
Cuzick, J., & Thorat, M. A. (Eds.). (2014). Prostate Cancer Prevention (Vol. 202). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Andersson, J. (2016). Reaching the World Through Free Licenses and Wikimedia’s Crowdsourced Platforms. In M. Ioannides, E. Fink, A. Moropoulou, M. Hagedorn-Saupe, A. Fresa, G. Liestøl, V. Rajcic, & P. Grussenmeyer (Eds.), Digital Heritage. Progress in Cultural Heritage: Documentation, Preservation, and Protection: 6th International Conference, EuroMed 2016, Nicosia, Cyprus, October 31 – November 5, 2016, Proceedings, Part II (pp. 33–37). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Innovation Studies.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, October 20). Cancer And Exercise Do Mix. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Next Generation Air Transportation System: Status of Systems Acquisition and the Transition to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (GAO-08-1078). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kovacev, R. J. (2008). Encouraging employee entrepreneurial spirit: A phenomenological case study of a large technology enterprise [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, April 26). Justices Reject Immunity Below State Level. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2003; Wagner & Petruzzelli, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wagner & Petruzzelli, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Innovation Studies
ISSN (print)2096-2487

Other styles