How to format your references using the International Journal of Innovation Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Innovation Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nordhaus, W. D. (2001). Climate change. Global warming economics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5545), 1283–1284.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berkman, P. A., & Young, O. R. (2009). Science and government. Governance and environmental change in the Arctic Ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5925), 339–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Langmore, N. E., Hunt, S., & Kilner, R. M. (2003). Escalation of a coevolutionary arms race through host rejection of brood parasitic young. Nature, 422(6928), 157–160.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jørgensen, L. H., Mosbech, M.-B., Færgeman, N. J., Graakjaer, J., Jacobsen, S. V., & Schrøder, H. D. (2014). Duplication in the microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 gene causes a novel neuromuscular condition. Scientific Reports, 4, 5180.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holsclaw, G. (2016). Transcending Subjects. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Seidl, C. (2013). Tax Progression in OECD Countries: An Integrative Analysis of Tax Schedules and Income Distributions (K. Pogorelskiy & S. Traub, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Borin, J. F., & McDougall, E. M. (2006). Ureteral Stent for Ureteral Stricture. In S. Baba & Y. Ono (Eds.), Interventional Management of Urological Diseases (pp. 75–86). Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Innovation Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, December 19). Neanderthal genome shows high levels of inbreeding. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). National Aero-Space Plane: A Need for Program Direction and Funding Decisions (NSIAD-93-207). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taboada-Peña, R. (2017). A Self-Empowering Holistic Art-Based Model Designed to Promote Emotional Well-Being, Coping Skills, and Self-Esteem in Youth [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Weil, E. (2015, July 23). A Hole in the Heart. New York Times, MM42.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nordhaus, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Berkman & Young, 2009; Nordhaus, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berkman & Young, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Langmore et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jørgensen et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Innovation Studies
ISSN (print)2096-2487

Other styles