How to format your references using the International Journal of Innovation Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Innovation Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grosjean, M. (2001). Mid-Holocene climate in the south-central Andes: humid or dry? Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5526), 2391.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fairn, G. D., & Grinstein, S. (2012). Cell biology. Precursor or charge supplier? Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6095), 653–654.
A journal article with 3 authors
Riehl, S., Zeidi, M., & Conard, N. J. (2013). Emergence of agriculture in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6141), 65–67.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cash, W., Shipley, A., Osterman, S., & Joy, M. (2000). Laboratory detection of X-ray fringes with a grazing-incidence interferometer. Nature, 407(6801), 160–162.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perry, D. E., & Haluska, M. J. (2016). Hiring Greatness. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Braz, J., Ranchordas, A., Araújo, H., & Jorge, J. (Eds.). (2007). Advances in Computer Graphics and Computer Vision: International Conferences VISAPP and GRAPP 2006, Setúbal, Portugal, February 25-28, 2006, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 4). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chilingaryan, S. (2009). The XMLBench Project: Comparison of Fast, Multi-platform XML libraries. In L. Chen, C. Liu, Q. Liu, & K. Deng (Eds.), Database Systems for Advanced Applications: DASFAA 2009 International Workshops: BenchmarX, MCIS, WDPP, PPDA, MBC, PhD, Brisbane, Australia, April 20 - 23, 2009 (pp. 21–34). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Innovation Studies.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, January 24). Actual Fukushima Radiation Levels May Have Been Four Times Lower Than Official Estimates. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Aviation Safety: FAA Has Increased Efforts to Address Runway Incursions (GAO-08-1169T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Selby, C. (2015). With|out [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Choi, S. (2013, November 10). Vanishing Acts. New York Times, BR25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grosjean, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Fairn & Grinstein, 2012; Grosjean, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fairn & Grinstein, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Riehl et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Cash et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Innovation Studies
ISSN (print)2096-2487

Other styles