How to format your references using the International Journal of Innovation Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Innovation Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stanley, H. E. (2000). Freezing by heating. Nature, 404(6779), 718–719.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farina, S. C., & Summers, A. P. (2015). Biomechanics: Boxed up and ready to go. Nature, 517(7534), 274–275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Capozza, R., Barel, I., & Urbakh, M. (2013). Probing and tuning frictional aging at the nanoscale. Scientific Reports, 3, 1896.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Brenguier, F., Campillo, M., Hadziioannou, C., Shapiro, N. M., Nadeau, R. M., & Larose, E. (2008). Postseismic relaxation along the San Andreas fault at Parkfield from continuous seismological observations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5895), 1478–1481.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reiss, E., Shadomy, H. J., & Lyon, G. M., III. (2011). Fundamental Medical Mycology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dörner, R., Göbel, S., Kickmeier-Rust, M., Masuch, M., & Zweig, K. (Eds.). (2016). Entertainment Computing and Serious Games: International GI-Dagstuhl Seminar 15283, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, July 5-10, 2015, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 9970). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Boyer, L., Cassagnes, L., Vernhet, H., Garcier, J.-M., & Chabrot, P. (2014). Embolization of the Pulmonary Artery. In P. Chabrot & L. Boyer (Eds.), Embolization (pp. 79–92). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Innovation Studies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, September 30). List Of Habitable Planets Could Increase Thanks To New Magnetic Field Generation Model. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Transportation Infrastructure: FHWA Should Assess and Compare the Benefits of Projects When Awarding Discretionary Grants (RCED-99-263). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ehigiator, O. J. (2015). A Closed Loop Control System for Pressure and Flow Detection Using a Vibrating String Transducer [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2017, October 27). MetroCard Replacement Will Be Safe, Officials Say. New York Times, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stanley, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Farina & Summers, 2015; Stanley, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Farina & Summers, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Capozza et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Brenguier et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Innovation Studies
ISSN (print)2096-2487

Other styles