How to format your references using the International Journal of Innovation Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Innovation Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bascompte, J. (2010). Ecology. Structure and dynamics of ecological networks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5993), 765–766.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, L., & Ye, K. (2006). Crystal structure of an H/ACA box ribonucleoprotein particle. Nature, 443(7109), 302–307.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krumholz, M. R., McKee, C. F., & Klein, R. I. (2005). The formation of stars by gravitational collapse rather than competitive accretion. Nature, 438(7066), 332–334.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Turelli, P., Mangeat, B., Jost, S., Vianin, S., & Trono, D. (2004). Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by APOBEC3G. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5665), 1829.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krichen, S., & Chaouachi, J. (2014). Graph-Related Optimization and Decision Support Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Barker, G., Desjardins, E., & Pearce, T. (Eds.). (2014). Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences (Vol. 4). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Deines, A., Fuselier, J. G., Long, L., Swisher, H., & Tu, F.-T. (2016). Hypergeometric Series, Truncated Hypergeometric Series, and Gaussian Hypergeometric Functions. In E. E. Eischen, L. Long, R. Pries, & K. E. Stange (Eds.), Directions in Number Theory: Proceedings of the 2014 WIN3 Workshop (pp. 125–159). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Innovation Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, January 24). Molten lava meets a can of Coke. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). DOD Business Transformation: Air Force’s Current Approach Increases Risk That Asset Visibility Goals and Transformation Priorities Will Not Be Achieved (No. GAO-08-866). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis, K. (2010). Manifesting archetypal energy through music (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002, March 17). An Esteemed Seminary’s Earthly Concern: The Endowment Shrinks, but Bills Persist. New York Times, p. 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bascompte, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bascompte, 2010; Li & Ye, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li & Ye, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Krumholz, McKee, & Klein, 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Turelli, Mangeat, Jost, Vianin, & Trono, 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Innovation Studies
ISSN (print)2096-2487

Other styles