How to format your references using the Alexandria Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Alexandria Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dye JL. Chemistry. Electrons as anions. Science. 2003;301(5633):607-608.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sato T, Clevers H. Growing self-organizing mini-guts from a single intestinal stem cell: mechanism and applications. Science. 2013;340(6137):1190-1194.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bhavsar AP, Guttman JA, Finlay BB. Manipulation of host-cell pathways by bacterial pathogens. Nature. 2007;449(7164):827-834.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nojiri M, Koteishi H, Nakagami T, et al. Structural basis of inter-protein electron transfer for nitrite reduction in denitrification. Nature. 2009;462(7269):117-120.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pan CT, Hwang YM, Lin L, Chen YC. Design and Fabrication of Self-Powered Micro-Harvesters. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Sessions J, ed. Harvesting Operations in the Tropics. Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Basso D, Pesarin F, Salmaso L, Solari A. Multivariate Continuous Data. In: Salmaso L, Pesarin F, Basso D, eds. Permutation Tests for Stochastic Ordering and ANOVA: Theory and Applications with R. Lecture Notes in Statistics. Springer; 2009:85-101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Alexandria Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Direct Brain-To-Brain Communication Used in Humans. IFLScience. Published September 3, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Science Foundation Conflict of Interest Problems With Grants to Short Term Employees. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pan CM. Synthesis and Evaluation of Macrocycles as Potential Antitumor Agents. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. 101 Years Ago: ‘The Birth of a Nation’ Had its First Screenings. New York Times. February 5, 2016:C29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAlexandria Journal of Medicine
ISSN (print)2090-5068

Other styles