How to format your references using the International Journal of Information Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Information Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stuart, J.S.: A near-Earth asteroid population estimate from the LINEAR survey. Science. 294, 1691–1693 (2001)
A journal article with 2 authors
Bell, J.J., Bhandoola, A.: The earliest thymic progenitors for T cells possess myeloid lineage potential. Nature. 452, 764–767 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Hammarström, P., Schneider, F., Kelly, J.W.: Trans-suppression of misfolding in an amyloid disease. Science. 293, 2459–2462 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Thomas, J.H., Weiss, N.O., Tobias, S.M., Brummell, N.H.: Downward pumping of magnetic flux as the cause of filamentary structures in sunspot penumbrae. Nature. 420, 390–393 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rieth, M., Krämer, N.: Hygiene in der Arzneimittelproduktion. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2016)
An edited book
Liu, J.: Autonomy Oriented Computing: From Problem Solving to Complex Systems Modeling. Springer US, Boston, MA (2005)
A chapter in an edited book
Li, C.I., Beaber, E.F.: Exogenous Hormones. In: Li, C. (ed.) Breast Cancer Epidemiology. pp. 89–117. Springer, New York, NY (2010)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Information Security.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Malaria Protein Could Give Us A Broad Cancer Treatment,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: K-12 Education: Characteristics of the Investing in Innovation Fund. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2014)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolodkowicz, R.: Leadership qualities and employee-student future intentions, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: A 96-Team Tournament? Now That’s Madness, (2010)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Information Security
AbbreviationInt. J. Inf. Secur.
ISSN (print)1615-5262
ISSN (online)1615-5270
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

Other styles