How to format your references using the Palaeovertebrata citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Palaeovertebrata. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kasahara, J. 2002. Geophysics. Tides, earthquakes, and volcanoes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297:348–349.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ferdinand, N. K., and B. Opitz. 2014. Different aspects of performance feedback engage different brain areas: disentangling valence and expectancy in feedback processing. Scientific Reports, 4:5986.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz, W., R. Muttarak, and E. Striessnig. 2014. Environment and development. Universal education is key to enhanced climate adaptation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346:1061–1062.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Olendorf, R., F. H. Rodd, D. Punzalan, A. E. Houde, C. Hurt, D. N. Reznick, and K. A. Hughes. 2006. Frequency-dependent survival in natural guppy populations. Nature, 441:633–636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sugirtharajah, R. S. 2011. Exploring Postcolonial Biblical Criticism. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, p.
An edited book
Bressoud, D. 2016. Teaching and Learning of Calculus (I. Ghedamsi, V. Martinez-Luaces, and G. Törner (eds.)). Springer International Publishing, Cham, VII, 37 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, Y., and J. Pang. 2015. Distance and Friendship: A Distance-Based Model for Link Prediction in Social Networks; p. 55–66. In R. Cheng, B. Cui, Z. Zhang, R. Cai, and J. Xu (eds.), Web Technologies and Applications: 17th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2015, Guangzhou, China, September 18-20, 2015, Proceedings., . Lecture Notes in Computer Science Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Palaeovertebrata.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2016. Mesmerizing New NASA Video Shows Their Latest Rocket At Work. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. NASA Budgets: Gap Between Funding Requirements and Projected Budgets Has Been Reopened. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Theodore, J. A. 2014. A Framework for Comparative Analysis of Gene Expressions and Mutations Linked to Cancer. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. 2014. After 2 Helmets Are Decertified, Lacrosse Faces Safety Concerns. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kasahara, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kasahara, 2002; Ferdinand and Opitz, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ferdinand and Opitz, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Olendorf et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePalaeovertebrata
ISSN (print)0031-0247
ISSN (online)2274-0333

Other styles