How to format your references using the Ecological Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vahala, K.J., 2003. Optical microcavities. Nature 424, 839–846.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seelig, J.D., Jayaraman, V., 2013. Feature detection and orientation tuning in the Drosophila central complex. Nature 503, 262–266.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prokopenko, A.A., Karabanov, E.B., Williams, D.F., 2002. Age of long sediment cores from Lake Baikal. Nature 415, 976.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Deming, D., Seager, S., Richardson, L.J., Harrington, J., 2005. Infrared radiation from an extrasolar planet. Nature 434, 740–743.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bouvier, J.-M., Campanella, O.H., 2014. Extrusion Processing Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kole, C. (Ed.), 2011. Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources: Industrial Crops. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kida, M., 2015. Role of EUS on Preoperative Staging of Gastric Cancer for ESD, in: Fukami, N. (Ed.), Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: Principles and Practice. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 27–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Economics.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. This Is What It Looks Like Inside A Beatboxer’s Throat [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Aviation Security: TSA Has Strengthened Efforts to Plan for the Optimal Deployment of Checked Baggage Screening Systems, but Funding Uncertainties Remain (No. GAO-06-875T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
MacKinder, M., 2010. Max the Knife, Salesman (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2017. Some Sugar. Could Use More Spice. New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vahala, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Seelig and Jayaraman, 2013; Vahala, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seelig and Jayaraman, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Deming et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Economics
AbbreviationEcol. Econ.
ISSN (print)0921-8009
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Environmental Science

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