How to format your references using the Ecological Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burns, C.J., 2005. Chemistry. Bridging a gap in actinide chemistry. Science 309, 1823–1824.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kassiotis, G., O’Garra, A., 2008. Immunology. Immunity benefits from a little suppression. Science 320, 1168–1169.
A journal article with 3 authors
Halberda, J., Mazzocco, M.M.M., Feigenson, L., 2008. Individual differences in non-verbal number acuity correlate with maths achievement. Nature 455, 665–668.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Garg, V., Muth, A.N., Ransom, J.F., Schluterman, M.K., Barnes, R., King, I.N., Grossfeld, P.D., Srivastava, D., 2005. Mutations in NOTCH1 cause aortic valve disease. Nature 437, 270–274.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stokes, D.J., 2008. Principles and Practice of Variable Pressure/Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-ESEM). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Berkowitz, B., 2008. Contaminant Geochemistry: Interactions and Transport in the Subsurface Environment. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Tytler, R., 2009. Longitudinal Studies into Science Learning: Methodological Issues, in: Shelley, M.C., Yore, L.D., Hand, B. (Eds.), Quality Research in Literacy and Science Education: International Perspectives and Gold Standards. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 83–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Economics.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Common Swifts Stay Airborne For 10 Months Straight [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. UMTA Project Oversight and Mass Transit Issues (No. T-RCED-90-102). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luse, K.M., 2008. Invariants of knots, graphs, and Feynman diagrams (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G., 2016. DC Bringing Back Two Gay Heroes. New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Burns, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Burns, 2005; Kassiotis and O’Garra, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kassiotis and O’Garra, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Garg et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Economics
AbbreviationEcol. Econ.
ISSN (print)0921-8009
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Environmental Science

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