How to format your references using the Ecological Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carninci, P., 2014. Genomics: mice in the ENCODE spotlight. Nature 515, 346–347.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bae, B.-I., Walsh, C.A., 2013. Neuroscience. What are mini-brains? Science 342, 200–201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brunkard, J.O., Runkel, A.M., Zambryski, P.C., 2015. Evolution. Comment on “A promiscuous intermediate underlies the evolution of LEAFY DNA binding specificity.” Science 347, 621.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rao, F., Ding, K., Zhou, Y., Zheng, Y., Xia, M., Lv, S., Song, Z., Feng, S., Ronneberger, I., Mazzarello, R., Zhang, W., Ma, E., 2017. Reducing the stochasticity of crystal nucleation to enable subnanosecond memory writing. Science 358, 1423–1427.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Elias, H.-G., 2009. Macromolecules. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Jia, Y., Du, J., Li, H., Zhang, W. (Eds.), 2016. Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference: Volume 1, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Mubarok, I., Lee, K., Lee, S., Lee, H., 2014. Lightweight Resource Management for DDoS Traffic Isolation in a Cloud Environment, in: Cuppens-Boulahia, N., Cuppens, F., Jajodia, S., Abou El Kalam, A., Sans, T. (Eds.), ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection: 29th IFIP TC 11 International Conference, SEC 2014, Marrakech, Morocco, June 2-4, 2014. Proceedings, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 44–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Economics.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. NASA Has Mapped Where Ice Could Be Hiding on Ceres [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Aviation Safety: Certification and Approval Processes Are Generally Viewed as Working Well, but Better Evaluative Information Needed to Improve Efficiency (No. GAO-11-14). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Long, K.E., 2009. Voluntary exiles: Short-term Western expatriates in three Chinese cities (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Blecher, G., 2015. Berra’s Values Shape Museum’s Mission. New York Times NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carninci, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bae and Walsh, 2013; Carninci, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bae and Walsh, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Rao et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Economics
AbbreviationEcol. Econ.
ISSN (print)0921-8009
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Environmental Science

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