How to format your references using the Ecological Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edwards, R.L., 2010. Climate change. Ice age rhythms. Science 327, 790–791.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sankar, P., Cho, M.K., 2002. Genetics. Toward a new vocabulary of human genetic variation. Science 298, 1337–1338.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giannini, A., Saravanan, R., Chang, P., 2003. Oceanic forcing of Sahel rainfall on interannual to interdecadal time scales. Science 302, 1027–1030.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rohling, E.J., Marsh, R., Wells, N.C., Siddall, M., Edwards, N.R., 2004. Similar meltwater contributions to glacial sea level changes from Antarctic and northern ice sheets. Nature 430, 1016–1021.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duffy, D.J., 2006. Introduction to C++ for Financial Engineers. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Anazawa, H., Shimizu, S. (Eds.), 2014. Microbial Production: From Genome Design to Cell Engineering. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Hafez, A.I., Hassanien, A.E., Fahmy, A.A., 2014. Testing Community Detection Algorithms: A Closer Look at Datasets, in: Panda, M., Dehuri, S., Wang, G.-N. (Eds.), Social Networking: Mining, Visualization, and Security, Intelligent Systems Reference Library. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 85–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Fatal Error: Why We Don’t Fully Trust Technology [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Fund Accountability: Procedures Used for Selected Benefit/Mandatory Spending Programs Are Adequate (No. AFMD-88-30). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bates, K., 2017. Drivers of Engagement for Volunteers in a Nonprofit (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J., 2017. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times MM20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edwards, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Edwards, 2010; Sankar and Cho, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sankar and Cho, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Rohling et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Economics
AbbreviationEcol. Econ.
ISSN (print)0921-8009
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Environmental Science

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