How to format your references using the Ecological Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cole-Hamilton, D.J., 2003. Homogeneous catalysis--new approaches to catalyst separation, recovery, and recycling. Science 299, 1702–1706.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fedoroff, N., Fontana, W., 2002. Genetic networks. Small numbers of big molecules. Science 297, 1129–1131.
A journal article with 3 authors
Preusser, F., Radies, D., Matter, A., 2002. A 160,000-year record of dune development and atmospheric circulation in Southern Arabia. Science 296, 2018–2020.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Baum, J.K., Myers, R.A., Kehler, D.G., Worm, B., Harley, S.J., Doherty, P.A., 2003. Collapse and conservation of shark populations in the Northwest Atlantic. Science 299, 389–392.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silvia, J.E., 2011. Dynamic Economic Decision Making. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Piekkola, H., Snellman, K. (Eds.), 2005. Collective Bargaining and Wage Formation: Performance and Challenges. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Cheung, S., Dutertre, B., Lindqvist, U., 2006. Detecting Disruptive Routers in Wireless Sensor Networks, in: Kunz, T., Ravi, S.S. (Eds.), Ad-Hoc, Mobile, and Wireless Networks: 5th International Conference, ADHOC-NOW 2006, Ottawa, Canada, August 17-19, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 19–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Drug Could Rejuvenate Aging Brain And Muscle Tissue [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. FAA Budget: Agency Faces Key Management Challenges on Major Issues (No. T-RCED-94-191). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris, R., 2011. Stone circles and sandplay therapy: The language of symbols (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. P.S. Jerusalem. New York Times C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cole-Hamilton, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Cole-Hamilton, 2003; Fedoroff and Fontana, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fedoroff and Fontana, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Baum et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Economics
AbbreviationEcol. Econ.
ISSN (print)0921-8009
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Environmental Science

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