How to format your references using the Climate citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Donath, J. Computer science. Virtually trustworthy. Science 2007, 317, 53–54.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rozema, J.; Flowers, T. Ecology. Crops for a salinized world. Science 2008, 322, 1478–1480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bhandawat, V.; Reisert, J.; Yau, K.-W. Elementary response of olfactory receptor neurons to odorants. Science 2005, 308, 1931–1934.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hu, D.; Hou, L.; Zhang, L.; Xu, X. A pre-Archaeopteryx troodontid theropod from China with long feathers on the metatarsus. Nature 2009, 461, 640–643.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lader, E.W. Field Guide to the Arrhythmias; John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118386101.
An edited book
Making It to the Forefront: Nanotechnology—A Developing Country Perspective; Aydogan-Duda, N., Ed.; Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management; Springer: New York, NY, 2012; Vol. 14; ISBN 9781461415442.
A chapter in an edited book
O’Hern, D.M.; Nozaki, Y. Kenyan Education. In Natural Science Education, Indigenous Knowledge, and Sustainable Development in Rural and Urban Schools in Kenya: Toward Critical Postcolonial Curriculum Policies and Practices; Nozaki, Y., Ed.; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2014; pp. 47–62 ISBN 9789462095427.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate.

Blog post
Hale, T. Sailors Find Millions Of Dollars Worth Of “Sperm Whale Puke” Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office The National Direct Student Loan Program Requires More Attention by the Office of Education and Participating Institutions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1977;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitchell, V.M. A phenomenological study factors African American female college students face participating in engineering STEM majors. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fernandez, M.; Fausset, R. A Limitless City, Now Envisioning New Limitations. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate
ISSN (online)2225-1154

Other styles