How to format your references using the Pulmonary Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pulmonary Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Corbyn Z. Prevention: lessons from a sunburnt country. Nature. 2014;515:S114-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ciufolini I, Pavlis EC. A confirmation of the general relativistic prediction of the Lense-Thirring effect. Nature. 2004;431:958–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gu M, Kang H, Li X. Breaking the diffraction-limited resolution barrier in fiber-optical two-photon fluorescence endoscopy by an azimuthally-polarized beam. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3627.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kang Z, Yuan J, Zhang X, Wu Q, Sang X, Farrell G, et al. CMOS-compatible 2-bit optical spectral quantization scheme using a silicon-nanocrystal-based horizontal slot waveguide. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7177.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bragg SM. The Controller’s Function. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Rizzo S, Patelli F, Chow DR, editors. Vitreo-retinal Surgery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Salton Y. Navigating the Terrain of Methodological Uncertainties to New Spaces of Research. In: Rossi D, Gacenga F, Danaher PA, editors. Navigating the Education Research Maze: Contextual, Conceptual, Methodological and Transformational Challenges and Opportunities for Researchers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 67–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pulmonary Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Hummingbirds Are More Efficient Than Helicopters When It Comes To Hovering [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Foundational Steps Being Taken to Make Needed FBI Systems Modernization Management Improvements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Sep. Report No.: GAO-04-842.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Malkus N. Beneath the district averages: Intradistrict differences in teacher compensation expenditures [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. Doomed Youth, Potent Despair. New York Times. 2017 Jul 11;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePulmonary Therapy
AbbreviationPulm. Ther.
ISSN (print)2364-1754
ISSN (online)2364-1746

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