How to format your references using the Pulmonary Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pulmonary Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wade N. Retrospective. John Maddox (1925-2009). Science. 2009;324:1028.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jones AG, Ferguson IJ. The electric Moho. Nature. 2001;409:331–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Harrington J, Palethorpe S, Watson CI. Does the Queen speak the Queen’s English? Nature. 2000;408:927–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mayer AL, Kauppi PE, Angelstam PK, Zhang Y, Tikka PM. Ecology. Importing timber, exporting ecological impact. Science. 2005;308:359–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chappell D. The JCT Standard Building Contract 2011. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2014.
An edited book
1. Pearson S, Yee G, editors. Privacy and Security for Cloud Computing. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Affenzeller M, Beham A, Kofler M, Kronberger G, Wagner SA, Winkler S. Metaheuristic Optimization. In: Buchberger B, Affenzeller M, Ferscha A, Haller M, Jebelean T, Klement EP, et al., editors. Hagenberg Research. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 103–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pulmonary Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. The Tropical Steam-Engine: How Does El Niño Warm The Entire Globe? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Additional Oversight Planning by FAA Could Enhance Safety Risk Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Jun. Report No.: GAO-14-516.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Thompson T. Assessing the determinants of information technology adoption in Jamaica’s public sector using the technology acceptance model [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. For Mets, It’s Injury After Injury, Year After Year. New York Times. 2017 May 4;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePulmonary Therapy
AbbreviationPulm. Ther.
ISSN (print)2364-1754
ISSN (online)2364-1746

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