How to format your references using the Pulmonary Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pulmonary Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schmidt C. Cancer: Reshaping the cancer clinic. Nature. 2015;527:S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Aeppli G, Soh YA. Physics Quantum criticality in a clean metal. Science. 2001;294:315–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pawlowski B, Dunbar RI, Lipowicz A. Tall men have more reproductive success. Nature. 2000;403:156.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Girst S, Hable V, Drexler GA, Greubel C, Siebenwirth C, Haum M, et al. Subdiffusion supports joining of correct ends during repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2511.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bunnell T. From World City to the World in One City. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Taniguchi M, editor. Groundwater and Subsurface Environments: Human Impacts in Asian Coastal Cities. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cova MA, Braini M. Rachide Infettivo. In: Martino F, editor. Imaging del rachide: Il vecchio e il nuovo. Milano: Springer; 2008. p. 61–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pulmonary Therapy.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. How Quickly Would A Zombie Outbreak Spread? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Securities Regulation: Hostile Corporate Takeovers: Synopses of Thirty-Two Attempts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Mar. Report No.: GGD-88-48FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Martin JC. Tbx18 and the epicardium in cardiac development and regenerative medicine [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gordon MR, Simons M. War Crimes Office May Be Shuttered As Tillerson Reorganizes State Dept. New York Times. 2017 Jul 19;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePulmonary Therapy
AbbreviationPulm. Ther.
ISSN (print)2364-1754
ISSN (online)2364-1746

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